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Creators/Authors contains: "Yan, Yanfa"

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  1. Abstract

    Bandgap gradient is a proven approach for improving the open-circuit voltages (VOCs) in Cu(In,Ga)Se2and Cu(Zn,Sn)Se2thin-film solar cells, but has not been realized in Cd(Se,Te) thin-film solar cells, a leading thin-film solar cell technology in the photovoltaic market. Here, we demonstrate the realization of a bandgap gradient in Cd(Se,Te) thin-film solar cells by introducing a Cd(O,S,Se,Te) region with the same crystal structure of the absorber near the front junction. The formation of such a region is enabled by incorporating oxygenated CdS and CdSe layers. We show that the introduction of the bandgap gradient reduces the hole density in the front junction region and introduces a small spike in the band alignment between this and the absorber regions, effectively suppressing the nonradiative recombination therein and leading to improved VOCs in Cd(Se,Te) solar cells using commercial SnO2buffers. A champion device achieves an efficiency of 20.03% with a VOCof 0.863 V.

  2. Abstract

    The outstanding performance of organic-inorganic metal trihalide solar cells benefits from the exceptional photo-physical properties of both electrons and holes in the material. Here, we directly probe the free-carrier dynamics in Cs-doped FAPbI3thin films by spatiotemporal photoconductivity imaging. Using charge transport layers to selectively quench one type of carriers, we show that the two relaxation times on the order of 1 μs and 10 μs correspond to the lifetimes of electrons and holes in FACsPbI3, respectively. Strikingly, the diffusion mapping indicates that the difference in electron/hole lifetimes is largely compensated by their disparate mobility. Consequently, the long diffusion lengths (3~5 μm) of both carriers are comparable to each other, a feature closely related to the unique charge trapping and de-trapping processes in hybrid trihalide perovskites. Our results unveil the origin of superior diffusion dynamics in this material, crucially important for solar-cell applications.

  3. Long-lived photon-stimulated conductance changes in solid-state materials can enable optical memory and brain-inspired neuromorphic information processing. It remains challenging to realize optical switching with low-energy consumption, and new mechanisms and design principles giving rise to persistent photoconductivity (PPC) can help overcome an important technological hurdle. Here, we demonstrate versatile heterojunctions between metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes that enable room-temperature, long-lived (thousands of seconds), writable, and erasable PPC. Optical switching and basic neuromorphic functions can be stimulated at low operating voltages with femto- to pico-joule energies per spiking event, and detailed analysis demonstrates that PPC in this nanoscale interface arises from field-assisted control of ion migration within the nanocrystal array. Contactless optical measurements also suggest these systems as potential candidates for photonic synapses that are stimulated and read in the optical domain. The tunability of PPC shown here holds promise for neuromorphic computing and other technologies that use optical memory.
  4. In a quest for Pb-free perovskites suitable for solar energy applications, Cs 2 TiBr 6 has recently been reported as a promising compound, with appropriate optical and electrical properties as well as high stability under environmental stresses. In this study, we pursue investigation on this compound, demonstrating phase pure Cs 2 TiBr 6 powder formation using solution synthesis and providing complementary experimental characterization and theoretical calculations. An experimental absorption onset of around 2.0 eV is extracted and a weak broad photoluminescence is measured. Density functional theory calculations predict an indirect bandgap, parity-forbidden for both the direct and indirect transitions, which explains the weak and Stokes shifted luminescence. Additionally, we highlight the strong instability of Cs 2 TiBr 6 powder in ambient atmosphere. Therefore, our experimental results supported by theoretical calculations differ from previous results and raise doubts on the suitability of Cs 2 TiBr 6 in its pristine form for solar energy applications.