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  1. Abstract

    In this work, the COVID-19 pandemic burden in Ukraine is investigated retrospectively using the excess mortality measures during 2020–2021. In particular, the epidemic impact on the Ukrainian population is studied via the standardized both all-cause and cause-specific mortality scores before and during the epidemic. The excess mortality counts during the pandemic were predicted based on historic data using parametric and nonparametric modeling and then compared with the actual reported counts to quantify the excess. The corresponding standardized mortalityP-score metrics were also compared with the neighboring countries. In summary, there were three “waves” of excess all-cause mortality in Ukraine in December 2020, April 2021 and November 2021 with excess of 32%, 43% and 83% above the expected mortality. Each new “wave” of the all-cause mortality was higher than the previous one and the mortality “peaks” corresponded in time to three “waves” of lab-confirmed COVID-19 mortality. The lab-confirmed COVID-19 mortality constituted 9% to 24% of the all-cause mortality during those three peak months. Overall, the mortality trends in Ukraine over time were similar to neighboring countries where vaccination coverage was similar to that in Ukraine. For cause-specific mortality, the excess observed was due to pneumonia as well as circulatory system diseasemore »categories that peaked at the same times as the all-cause and lab-confirmed COVID-19 mortality, which was expected. The pneumonias as well as circulatory system disease categories constituted the majority of all cases during those peak times. The seasonality in mortality due to the infectious and parasitic disease category became less pronounced during the pandemic. While the reported numbers were always relatively low, alcohol-related mortality also declined during the pandemic.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Precise tuning of chemical reactions with predictable and controllable manners, an ultimate goal chemists desire to achieve, is valuable in the scientific community. This tunability is necessary to understand and regulate chemical transformations at both macroscopic and single-molecule levels to meet demands in potential application scenarios. Herein, we realise accurate tuning of a single-molecule Mizoroki-Heck reaction via applying gate voltages as well as complete deciphering of its detailed intrinsic mechanism by employing an in-situ electrical single-molecule detection, which possesses the capability of single-event tracking. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction can be regulated in different dimensions with a constant catalyst molecule, including the molecular orbital gating of Pd(0) catalyst, the on/off switching of the Mizoroki-Heck reaction, the promotion of its turnover frequency, and the regulation of each elementary reaction within the Mizoroki-Heck catalytic cycle. These results extend the tuning scope of chemical reactions from the macroscopic view to the single-molecule approach, inspiring new insights into designing different strategies or devices to unveil reaction mechanisms and discover novel phenomena.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Shape memory polymers are gaining significant interest as one of the major constituent materials for the emerging field of 4D printing. While 3D-printed metamaterials with shape memory polymers show unique thermomechanical behaviors, their thermal transport properties have received relatively little attention. Here, we show that thermal transport in 3D-printed shape memory polymers strongly depends on the shape, solid volume fraction, and temperature and that thermal radiation plays a critical role. Our infrared thermography measurements reveal thermal transport mechanisms of shape memory polymers in varying shapes from bulk to octet-truss and Kelvin-foam microlattices with volume fractions of 4%–7% and over a temperature range of 30–130 °C. The thermal conductivity of bulk shape memory polymers increases from 0.24 to 0.31 W m −1  K −1 around the glass transition temperature, in which the primary mechanism is the phase-dependent change in thermal conduction. On the contrary, thermal radiation dominates heat transfer in microlattices and its contribution to the Kelvin-foam structure ranges from 68% to 83% and to the octet-truss structure ranges from 59% to 76% over the same temperature range. We attribute this significant role of thermal radiation to the unique combination of a high infrared emissivity and a high surface-to-volume ratio in the shape memorymore »polymer microlattices. Our work also presents an effective medium approach to explain the experimental results and model thermal transport properties with varying shapes, volume fractions, and temperatures. These findings provide new insights into understanding thermal transport mechanisms in 4D-printed shape memory polymers and exploring the design space of thermomechanical metamaterials.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  5. etecting valuable anomalies with high accuracy and low latency from large amounts of streaming data is a challenge. This article focuses on a special kind of stream, the catalog stream, which has a high-level structure to analyze the stream effectively. We first formulate the anomaly detection in catalog streams as a constrained optimization problem based on a catalog stream matrix. Then, a novel filtering-identifying based anomaly detection algorithm (FIAD) is proposed, which includes two complementary strategies, true event identifying and false alarm filtering. Different kinds of attention windows are developed to provide corresponding data for various algorithm components. The identifying strategy includes true events in a much smaller candidate set. Meanwhile, the filtering strategy significantly removes false positives. A scalable catalog stream processing framework CSPF is designed to support the proposed method efficiently. Extensive experiments are conducted on the catalog stream data sets from an astronomy observation. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve a false-positive rate as low as 0.04%, reduces the false alarms by 98.6% compared with the existing methods, and the latency to handle each catalog is 2.1 seconds. Furthermore, a total of 36 transient candidates are detected from one observation season.
  6. Leszek Rutkowski, Rafał Scherer (Ed.)