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  1. In this work, the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature on the ferroelectric polarization in zirconium-doped hafnium oxide (HZO) was studied. To maximize remnant polarization (2P r ), in-plane tensile stress was induced by tungsten electrodes under optimal RTA temperatures. We observed an increase in 2P r with RTA temperature, likely due to an increased proportion of the polar ferroelectric phase in HZO. The HZO capacitors annealed at 400°C did not exhibit any ferroelectric behavior, whereas the HZO capacitors annealed at 800°C became highly leaky and shorted for voltages above 1 V. On the other hand, annealing at 700 °C produced HZO capacitors with a record-high 2P r of ∼ 64 μ C cm −2  at a relatively high frequency of 111 kHz. These ferroelectric capacitors have also demonstrated impressive endurance and retention characteristics, which will greatly benefit neuromorphic computing applications.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 25, 2023
  2. Memristor devices have been extensively studied as one of the most promising technologies for next-generation non-volatile memory. However, for the memristor devices to have a real technological impact, they must be densely packed in a large crossbar array (CBA) exceeding Gigabytes in size. Devising a selector device that is CMOS compatible, 3D stackable, and has a high non-linearity (NL) and great endurance is a crucial enabling ingredient to reach this goal. Tunneling based selectors are very promising in these aspects, but the mediocre NL value limits their applications in large passive crossbar arrays. In this work, we demonstrated a trilayer tunneling selector based on the Ge/Pt/TaN 1+x /Ta 2 O 5 /TaN 1+x /Pd layers that could achieve a NL of 3 × 10 5 , which is the highest NL achieved using a tunnel selector so far. The record-high tunneling NL is partially attributed to the bottom electrode's ultra-smoothness (BE) induced by a Ge/Pt layer. We further demonstrated the feasibility of 1S1R (1-selector 1-resistor) integration by vertically integrating a Pd/Ta 2 O 5 /Ru based memristor on top of the proposed selector.
  3. Neuromorphic computers could overcome efficiency bottlenecks inherent to conventional computing through parallel programming and readout of artificial neural network weights in a crossbar memory array. However, selective and linear weight updates and <10-nanoampere read currents are required for learning that surpasses conventional computing efficiency. We introduce an ionic floating-gate memory array based on a polymer redox transistor connected to a conductive-bridge memory (CBM). Selective and linear programming of a redox transistor array is executed in parallel by overcoming the bridging threshold voltage of the CBMs. Synaptic weight readout with currents <10 nanoamperes is achieved by diluting the conductive polymer with an insulator to decrease the conductance. The redox transistors endure >1 billion write-read operations and support >1-megahertz write-read frequencies.
  4. Abstract

    Memristors with tunable resistance states are emerging building blocks of artificial neural networks. However, in situ learning on a large-scale multiple-layer memristor network has yet to be demonstrated because of challenges in device property engineering and circuit integration. Here we monolithically integrate hafnium oxide-based memristors with a foundry-made transistor array into a multiple-layer neural network. We experimentally demonstrate in situ learning capability and achieve competitive classification accuracy on a standard machine learning dataset, which further confirms that the training algorithm allows the network to adapt to hardware imperfections. Our simulation using the experimental parameters suggests that a larger network would further increase the classification accuracy. The memristor neural network is a promising hardware platform for artificial intelligence with high speed-energy efficiency.