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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 26, 2023
  2. In the past decade, Deep Learning (DL) systems have been widely deployed in various application domains to facilitate our daily life, e.g., natural language processing, healthcare, activity recognition, and autonomous driving. Meanwhile, it is extremely challenging to ensure the correctness of DL systems (e.g., due to their intrinsic nondeterminism), and bugs in DL systems can cause serious consequences and may even threaten human lives. In the literature, researchers have explored various techniques to test, analyze, and verify DL models, since their quality directly affects the corresponding system behaviors. Recently, researchers have also proposed novel techniques for testing the underlying operator-level DL libraries (such as TensorFlow and PyTorch), which provide general binary implementations for each high-level DL operator and are the foundation for running DL models on different hardware platforms. However, there is still limited work targeting the reliability of the emerging tensor compilers (also known as DL compilers), which aim to automatically compile high-level tensor computation graphs directly into high-performance binaries for better efficiency, portability, and scalability than traditional operator-level libraries. Therefore, in this paper, we target the important problem of tensor compiler testing, and have proposed Tzer, a practical fuzzing technique for the widely used TVM tensor compiler. Tzermore »focuses on mutating the low-level Intermediate Representation (IR) for TVM due to the limited mutation space for the high-level IR. More specifically, Tzer leverages both general-purpose and tensor-compiler-specific mutators guided by coverage feedback for diverse and evolutionary IR mutation; furthermore, since tensor compilers provide various passes (i.e., transformations) for IR optimization, Tzer also performs pass mutation in tandem with IR mutation for more effective fuzzing. Our experimental results show that Tzer substantially outperforms existing fuzzing techniques on tensor compiler testing, with 75% higher coverage and 50% more valuable tests than the 2nd-best technique. Also, different components of Tzer have been validated via ablation study. To date, Tzer has detected 49 previously unknown bugs for TVM, with 37 bugs confirmed and 25 bugs fixed (PR merged).« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023

    We report the results of long-term reverberation mapping campaigns of the nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) NGC 4151, spanning from 1994 to 2022, based on archived observations of the FAST Spectrograph Publicly Archived Programs and our new observations with the 2.3 m telescope at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory. We reduce and calibrate all the spectra in a consistent way, and derive light curves of the broad H β line and 5100 Å continuum. Continuum light curves are also constructed using public archival photometric data to increase sampling cadences. We subtract the host galaxy contamination using Hubble Space Telescope imaging to correct fluxes of the calibrated light curves. Utilizing the long-term archival photometric data, we complete the absolute flux-calibration of the AGN continuum. We find that the H β time delays are correlated with the 5100 Å luminosities as $\tau _{\rm H\beta }\propto L_{5100}^{0.46\pm 0.16}$. This is remarkably consistent with Bentz et al. (2013)’s global size–luminosity relationship of AGNs. Moreover, the data sets for five of the seasons allow us to obtain the velocity-resolved delays of the H β line, showing diverse structures (outflows, inflows, and discs). Combining our results with previous independent measurements, we find the measured dynamics of the H β broad-line region (BLR) are possiblymore »related to the long-term trend of the luminosity. There is also a possible additional ∼1.86 yr time lag between the variation in BLR radius and luminosity. These results suggest that dynamical changes in the BLR may be driven by the effects of radiation pressure.

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  5. Optical tweezers have emerged as a powerful tool for the non-invasive trapping and manipulation of colloidal particles and biological cells1,2. However, the diffraction limit precludes the low-power trapping of nanometre-scale objects. Substantially increasing the laser power can provide enough trapping potential depth to trap nanoscale objects. Unfortunately, the substantial optical intensity required causes photo-toxicity and thermal stress in the trapped biological specimens3. Low-power near-field nano-optical tweezers comprising plasmonic nanoantennas and photonic crystal cavities have been explored for stable nanoscale object trapping4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. However, the demonstrated approaches still require that the object is trapped at the high-light-intensity region. We report a new kind of optically controlled nanotweezers, called opto-thermo-electrohydrodynamic tweezers, that enable the trapping and dynamic manipulation of nanometre-scale objects at locations that are several micrometres away from the high-intensity laser focus. At the trapping locations, the nanoscale objects experience both negligible photothermal heating and light intensity. Opto-thermo-electrohydrodynamic tweezers employ a finite array of plasmonic nanoholes illuminated with light and an applied a.c. electric field to create the spatially varying electrohydrodynamic potential that can rapidly trap sub-10 nm biomolecules at femtomolar concentrations on demand. This non-invasive optical nanotweezing approach is expected to open new opportunities in nanoscience and life science by offering anmore »unprecedented level of control of nano-sized objects, including photo-sensitive biological molecules.« less
  6. Abstract In this third paper of the series reporting on the reverberation mapping campaign of active galactic nuclei with asymmetric H β emission-line profiles, we present results for 15 Palomar–Green quasars using spectra obtained between the end of 2016–2021 May. This campaign combines long time spans with relatively high cadence. For eight objects, both the time lags obtained from the entire light curves and the measurements from individual observing seasons are provided. Reverberation mapping of nine of our targets has been attempted for the first time, while the results for six others can be compared with previous campaigns. We measure the H β time lags over periods of years and estimate their black hole masses. The long duration of the campaign enables us to investigate their broad-line region (BLR) geometry and kinematics for different years by using velocity-resolved lags, which demonstrate signatures of diverse BLR geometry and kinematics. The BLR geometry and kinematics of individual objects are discussed. In this sample, the BLR kinematics of Keplerian/virialized motion and inflow is more common than that of outflow.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 22, 2023
  7. In an input-queued switch, a crossbar schedule, or a matching between the input ports and the output ports needs to be computed for each switching cycle, or time slot. It is a challenging research problem to design switching algorithms that produce high-quality matchings yet have a very low computational complexity when the switch has a large number of ports. Indeed, there appears to be a fundamental tradeoff between the computational complexity of the switching algorithm and the quality of the computed matchings. Parallel maximal matching algorithms (adapted for switching) appear to be a sweet tradeoff point in this regard. On one hand, they provide the following performance guarantees: Using maxi- mal matchings as crossbar schedules results in at least 50% switch throughput and order-optimal (i.e., independent of the switch size 𝑁 ) average delay bounds for various traffic arrival processes. On the other hand, their computational complexities can be as low as 𝑂 (log2 𝑁 ) per port/processor, which is much lower than those of the algorithms for finding matchings of higher qualities such as maximum weighted matching. In this work, we propose QPS-r, a parallel iterative switching algorithm that has the lowest possible computational complexity: 𝑂(1) per port. Yet,more »the matchings that QPS-r computes have the same quality as maximal matchings in the following sense: Using such matchings as crossbar schedules results in exactly the same aforementioned provable throughput and delay guarantees as using maximal matchings, as we show using Lyapunov stability analysis. Although QPS-r builds upon an existing add-on technique called Queue-Proportional Sampling (QPS), we are the first to discover and prove this nice property of such matchings. We also demon- strate that QPS-3 (running 3 iterations) has comparable empirical throughput and delay performances as iSLIP (running log 𝑁 itera- 2 tions), a refined and optimized representative maximal matching algorithm adapted for switching.« less