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  1. Kevin Zumbrun (Ed.)
    We study for the Richard-Gavrilyuk model of inclined shallow water flow, an extension of the classical Saint Venant equations incorporating vorticity, the new feature of convective-wave solutions analogous to contact discontinuitis in inviscid conservation laws. These are traveling waves for which fluid velocity is constant and equal to the speed of propagation of the wave, but fluid height and/or enstrophy (thus vorticity) varies. Together with hydraulic shocks, they play an important role in the structure of Riemann solutions. 
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  2. Abstract Background

    Myomectomy is the preferred treatment for women with uterine fibroids and fertility requirements. There are three modalities are used in clinical practice for myomectomy: abdominal myomectomy (AM), laparoscopic myomectomy (LM), and robot‐assisted laparoscopic myomectomy (RLM).

    Objectives

    To compare the perioperative and postoperative outcomes of RLM, AM, and LM.

    Search Strategy

    We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Clinical Trials for relevant literature published between January 2000 and January 2023.

    Selection Criteria

    We included all studies reporting peri‐ and postoperative outcomes of myomectomy in patients with uterine myomas. Surgical treatments were classified as RLM, LM, or AM.

    Data Collection and Analysis

    Two or more authors selected studies independently, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We derived mean difference (MD) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome, subgrouping trials by the patient characteristics and myoma characteristics. We used theI2statistic to quantify heterogeneity and the random‐effects model for meta‐analysis when appropriate. We used the funnel plot to assess the publication bias.

    Main Results

    A total of 32 studies with 6357 patients were included, of which 1982 women had undergone RLM. The operating time was significantly longer (MD = 43.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.22–61.93,P < 0.001), and the incidence of cesarean section after myomectomy was significantly lower (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10–0.78,P = 0.02) in RLM than in LM. Compared with AM, the operation time, blood loss, blood transfusion rate, complication rate, total cost, length of hospital stay, and pregnancy rate of patients with RLM were significantly different.

    Conclusions

    The safety and effectiveness of RLM are superior to those of AM but inferior to those of LM.

     
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  3. Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) based rendering has attracted growing attention thanks to its state-of-the-art (SOTA) rendering quality and wide applications in Augmented and Virtual Reality (AR/VR). However, immersive real-time (> 30 FPS) NeRF based rendering enabled interactions are still limited due to the low achievable throughput on AR/VR devices. To this end, we first profile SOTA efficient NeRF al- gorithms on commercial devices and identify two primary causes of the aforementioned inefficiency: (1) the uniform point sampling and (2) the dense accesses and computations of the required embeddings in NeRF. Furthermore, we propose RT-NeRF, which to the best of our knowledge is the first algorithm-hardware co-design acceleration of NeRF. Specifically, on the algorithm level, RT-NeRF integrates an efficient rendering pipeline for largely alleviating the inefficiency due to the commonly adopted uniform point sampling method in NeRF by directly computing the geometry of pre-existing points. Additionally, RT-NeRF leverages a coarse-grained view-dependent computing ordering scheme for eliminating the (unnecessary) pro- cessing of invisible points. On the hardware level, our proposed RT-NeRF accelerator (1) adopts a hybrid encoding scheme to adap- tively switch between a bitmap- or coordinate-based sparsity encoding format for NeRF’s sparse embeddings, aiming to maximize the storage savings and thus reduce the required DRAM accesses while supporting efficient NeRF decoding; and (2) integrates both a high-density sparse search unit and a dual-purpose bi-direction adder & search tree to coordinate the two aforementioned encod- ing formats. Extensive experiments on eight datasets consistently validate the effectiveness of RT-NeRF, achieving a large throughput improvement (e.g., 9.7×∼3,201×) while maintaining the rendering quality as compared with SOTA efficient NeRF solutions. 
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  4. For strong detonation waves of the inviscid Majda model, spectral stability was established by Jung and Yao for waves with step-type ignition functions, by a proof based largely on explicit knowledge of wave profiles. In the present work, we extend their stability results to strong detonation waves with more general ignition functions where explicit profiles are unknown. Our proof is based on reduction to a generalized Sturm-Liouville problem, similar to that used by Sukhtayev, Yang, and Zumbrun to study spectral stability of hydraulic shock profiles of the Saint-Venant equations. 
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  5. Abstract

    Land‐atmosphere interactions are critical for precipitation (PPT) over South America where terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) constitutes a significant fraction of moisture for rainfall over the ecologically and socio‐economically vital Amazon (AMZ) and La Plata (LPB) river basins. We quantify the contribution of ET from AMZ and LPB to PPT over the continent with a focus on the intraseasonal time scale. Using numerical water tracers embedded in the Weather Research and Forecasting model we track the moisture originating from the two basins. Our findings indicate that approximately 40% of annual rainfall over the eastern foothills of the Andes originates as AMZ ET, and nearly 30% of rainfall over northern Argentina originates as LPB ET. Analysis of moisture transport during both phases of the dominant intraseasonal oscillation pattern over South America reveals an intraseasonal “sloshing” of LPB moisture between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and southeastern South America (SESA) regions. AMZ and LPB each supply approximately 6% of moisture for SACZ PPT during periods of intraseasonal enhancement (positive anomalies), highlighting the importance of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean. For the SESA region, LPB supplies 26% of the moisture for PPT during periods of intraseasonal enhancement while AMZ supplies 5%.

     
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