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  1. null (Ed.)
    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has enabled the identification and quantification of thousands of proteins from complex proteomes in a single experiment. However, its performance for mass-limited proteome samples ( e.g. , single cells and tissue samples from laser capture microdissection) is still not satisfying. The development of novel proteomic methodologies with better overall sensitivity is vital. During the last several years, substantial technical progress has been achieved for the preparation and liquid-phase separation-MS characterization of mass-limited proteome samples. In this review, we summarize recent technological progress of sample preparation, liquid chromatography (LC)-MS, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)-MS and MS instrumentation for bottom-up proteomics of trace biological samples, highlight some exciting applications of the novel techniques for single-cell proteomics, and provide a very brief perspective about the field at the end. 
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  2. Multilevel proteomics aims to delineate proteins at the peptide (bottom-up proteomics), proteoform (top-down proteomics), and protein complex (native proteomics) levels. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) can achieve highly efficient separation and highly sensitive detection of complex mixtures of peptides, proteoforms, and even protein complexes because of its substantial technical progress. CE-MS has become a valuable alternative to the routinely used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for multilevel proteomics. This review summarizes the most recent (2019-2021) advances of CE-MS for multilevel proteomics regarding technological progress and biological applications. We also provide brief perspectives on CE-MS for multilevel proteomics at the end, highlighting some future directions and potential challenges. 
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