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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Collective couplings of atomic dipoles to a shared electromagnetic environment produce a wide range of many-body phenomena. We report on the direct observation of resonant electric dipole-dipole interactions in a cubic array of atoms in the many-excitation limit. The interactions produce spatially dependent cooperative Lamb shifts when spectroscopically interrogating the millihertz-wide optical clock transition in strontium-87. We show that the ensemble-averaged shifts can be suppressed below the level of evaluated systematic uncertainties for optical atomic clocks. Additionally, we demonstrate that excitation of the atomic dipoles near a Bragg angle can enhance these effects by nearly an order of magnitude compared with nonresonant geometries. Our work demonstrates a platform for precise studies of the quantum many-body physics of spins with long-range interactions mediated by propagating photons.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 26, 2025
  3. The Pound–Drever–Hall (PDH) cavity-locking scheme has found prevalent uses in precision optical interferometry and laser frequency stabilization. A form of frequency modulation spectroscopy, PDH enjoys superior signal-to-noise recovery, large acquisition dynamic range, wide servo bandwidth, and robust rejection of spurious effects. However, residual amplitude modulation at the signal frequency, while significantly suppressed, still presents an important concern for further advancing the state-of-the-art performances. Here we present a simplified and improved scheme for PDH using an acousto-optic modulator to generate digital phase reference sidebands instead of the traditionally used electro-optic modulator approach. We demonstrate four key advantages: (1) the carrier and two modulation tones are individually synthesized and easily reconfigured, (2) robust and orthogonal control of the modulated optical field is applied directly to the amplitude and phase quadratures, (3) modulation synthesis, demodulation, and feedback are implemented in a self-contained and easily reproducible electronic unit, and (4) superior active and passive control of residual amplitude modulation is achieved, especially when the carrier power is vanishingly low. These distinct merits stimulate new ideas on how we optimally enact PDH for a wide range of applications.

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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  7. Ergodicity, the central tenet of statistical mechanics, requires an isolated system to explore all available phase space constrained by energy and symmetry. Mechanisms for violating ergodicity are of interest for probing nonequilibrium matter and protecting quantum coherence in complex systems. Polyatomic molecules have long served as a platform for probing ergodicity breaking in vibrational energy transport. Here, we report the observation of rotational ergodicity breaking in an unprecedentedly large molecule,12C60, determined from its icosahedral rovibrational fine structure. The ergodicity breaking occurs well below the vibrational ergodicity threshold and exhibits multiple transitions between ergodic and nonergodic regimes with increasing angular momentum. These peculiar dynamics result from the molecule’s distinctive combination of symmetry, size, and rigidity, highlighting its relevance to emergent phenomena in mesoscopic quantum systems.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 18, 2024
  8. Simulating the properties of many-body fermionic systems is an outstanding computational challenge relevant to material science, quantum chemistry, and particle physics.-5.4pc]Please note that the spelling of the following author names in the manuscript differs from the spelling provided in the article metadata: D. González-Cuadra, D. Bluvstein, M. Kalinowski, R. Kaubruegger, N. Maskara, P. Naldesi, T. V. Zache, A. M. Kaufman, M. D. Lukin, H. Pichler, B. Vermersch, Jun Ye, and P. Zoller. The spelling provided in the manuscript has been retained; please confirm. Although qubit-based quantum computers can potentially tackle this problem more efficiently than classical devices, encoding nonlocal fermionic statistics introduces an overhead in the required resources, limiting their applicability on near-term architectures. In this work, we present a fermionic quantum processor, where fermionic models are locally encoded in a fermionic register and simulated in a hardware-efficient manner using fermionic gates. We consider in particular fermionic atoms in programmable tweezer arrays and develop different protocols to implement nonlocal gates, guaranteeing Fermi statistics at the hardware level. We use this gate set, together with Rydberg-mediated interaction gates, to find efficient circuit decompositions for digital and variational quantum simulation algorithms, illustrated here for molecular energy estimation. Finally, we consider a combined fermion-qubit architecture, where both the motional and internal degrees of freedom of the atoms are harnessed to efficiently implement quantum phase estimation as well as to simulate lattice gauge theory dynamics.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 29, 2024