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    When the first galaxies formed and starlight escaped into the intergalactic medium to reionize it, galaxy formation and reionization were both highly inhomogeneous in time and space, and fully coupled by mutual feedback. To show how this imprinted the UV luminosity function (UVLF) of reionization-era galaxies, we use our large-scale, radiation-hydrodynamics simulation CoDa II to derive the time- and space-varying halo mass function and UVLF, from z ≃ 6–15. That UVLF correlates strongly with local reionization redshift: earlier-reionizing regions have UVLFs that are higher, more extended to brighter magnitudes, and flatter at the faint end than later-reionizing regions observed at the same z. In general, as a region reionizes, the faint-end slope of its local UVLF flattens, and, by z = 6 (when reionization ended), the global UVLF, too, exhibits a flattened faint-end slope, ‘rolling-over’ at MUV ≳ −17. CoDa II’s UVLF is broadly consistent with cluster-lensed galaxy observations of the Hubble Frontier Fields at z = 6–8, including the faint end, except for the faintest data point at z = 6, based on one galaxy at MUV = −12.5. According to CoDa II, the probability of observing the latter is $\sim 5~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. However, the effective volume searched at this magnitude is very small, and is thus subject to significant cosmic variance. We find that previous methods adopted to calculate the uncertainty due to cosmic variance underestimated it on such small scales by a factor of 2–4, primarily by underestimating the variance in halo abundance when the sample volume is small.

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    Patchy cosmic reionization resulted in the ionizing UV background asynchronous rise across the Universe. The latter might have left imprints visible in present-day observations. Several numerical simulation-based studies show correlations between the reionization time and overdensities and object masses today. To remove the mass from the study, as it may not be the sole important parameter, this paper focuses solely on the properties of paired haloes within the same mass range as the Milky Way. For this purpose, it uses CoDaII, a fully coupled radiation hydrodynamics reionization simulation of the local Universe. This simulation holds a halo pair representing the Local Group, in addition to other pairs, sharing similar mass, mass ratio, distance separation, and isolation criteria but in other environments, alongside isolated haloes within the same mass range. Investigations of the paired halo reionization histories reveal a wide diversity although always inside-out, given our reionization model. Within this model, haloes in a close pair tend to be reionized at the same time but being in a pair does not bring to an earlier time their mean reionization. The only significant trend is found between the total energy at z = 0 of the pairs and their mean reionization time: Pairs with the smallest total energy (bound) are reionized up to 50 Myr earlier than others (unbound). Above all, this study reveals the variety of reionization histories undergone by halo pairs similar to the Local Group, that of the Local Group being far from an average one. In our model, its reionization time is ∼625 Myr against 660 ± 4 Myr (z ∼ 8.25 against 7.87 ± 0.02) on average.

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    Galaxy clusters have a triaxial matter distribution. The weak-lensing signal, an important part in cosmological studies, measures the projected mass of all matter along the line of sight, and therefore changes with the orientation of the cluster. Studies suggest that the shape of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the centre of the cluster traces the underlying halo shape, enabling a method to account for projection effects. We use 324 simulated clusters at four redshifts between 0.1 and 0.6 from ‘The Three Hundred Project’ to quantify correlations between the orientation and shape of the BCG and the halo. We find that haloes and their embedded BCGs are aligned, with an average ∼20 degree angle between their major axes. The bias in weak lensing cluster mass estimates correlates with the orientation of both the halo and the BCG. Mimicking observations, we compute the projected shape of the BCG, as a measure of the BCG orientation, and find that it is most strongly correlated to the weak-lensing mass for relaxed clusters. We also test a 2D cluster relaxation proxy measured from BCG mass isocontours. The concentration of stellar mass in the projected BCG core compared to the total stellar mass provides an alternative proxy for the BCG orientation. We find that the concentration does not correlate to the weak-lensing mass bias, but does correlate with the true halo mass. These results indicate that the BCG shape and orientation for large samples of relaxed clusters can provide information to improve weak-lensing mass estimates.

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    Galaxy cluster masses, rich with cosmological information, can be estimated from internal dark matter (DM) velocity dispersions, which in turn can be observationally inferred from satellite galaxy velocities. However, galaxies are biased tracers of the DM, and the bias can vary over host halo and galaxy properties as well as time. We precisely calibrate the velocity bias, bv – defined as the ratio of galaxy and DM velocity dispersions – as a function of redshift, host halo mass, and galaxy stellar mass threshold ($M_{\rm \star , sat}$), for massive haloes ($M_{\rm 200c}\gt 10^{13.5} \, {\rm M}_\odot$) from five cosmological simulations: IllustrisTNG, Magneticum, Bahamas + Macsis, The Three Hundred Project, and MultiDark Planck-2. We first compare scaling relations for galaxy and DM velocity dispersion across simulations; the former is estimated using a new ensemble velocity likelihood method that is unbiased for low galaxy counts per halo, while the latter uses a local linear regression. The simulations show consistent trends of bv increasing with M200c and decreasing with redshift and $M_{\rm \star , sat}$. The ensemble-estimated theoretical uncertainty in bv is 2–3 per cent, but becomes percent-level when considering only the three highest resolution simulations. We update the mass–richness normalization for an SDSS redMaPPer cluster sample, and find our improved bv estimates reduce the normalization uncertainty from 22 to 8 per cent, demonstrating that dynamical mass estimation is competitive with weak lensing mass estimation. We discuss necessary steps for further improving this precision. Our estimates for $b_v(M_{\rm 200c}, M_{\rm \star , sat}, z)$ are made publicly available.

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  5. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is expected to observe galaxies at z > 10 that are presently inaccessible. Here, we use a self-consistent empirical model, the universemachine, to generate mock galaxy catalogues and light-cones over the redshift range z = 0−15. These data include realistic galaxy properties (stellar masses, star formation rates, and UV luminosities), galaxy–halo relationships, and galaxy–galaxy clustering. Mock observables are also provided for different model parameters spanning observational uncertainties at z < 10. We predict that Cycle 1 JWST surveys will very likely detect galaxies with M* > 107 M⊙ and/or M1500 < −17 out to at least z ∼ 13.5. Number density uncertainties at z > 12 expand dramatically, so efforts to detect z > 12 galaxies will provide the most valuable constraints on galaxy formation models. The faint-end slopes of the stellar mass/luminosity functions at a given mass/luminosity threshold steepen as redshift increases. This is because observable galaxies are hosted by haloes in the exponentially falling regime of the halo mass function at high redshifts. Hence, these faint-end slopes are robustly predicted to become shallower below current observable limits (M* < 107 M⊙ or M1500 > −17). For reionization models, extrapolating luminosity functions with a constant faint-end slope from M1500 = −17 down to M1500 = −12 gives the most reasonable upper limit for the total UV luminosity and cosmic star formation rate up to z ∼ 12. We compare to three other empirical models and one semi-analytic model, showing that the range of predicted observables from our approach encompasses predictions from other techniques. Public catalogues and light-cones for common fields are available online. 
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  6. ABSTRACT Galaxy clustering measurements can be used to constrain many aspects of galaxy evolution, including galaxy host halo masses, satellite quenching efficiencies, and merger rates. We simulate JWST galaxy clustering measurements at z ∼ 4–10 by utilizing mock galaxy samples produced by an empirical model, the universemachine. We also adopt the survey footprints and typical depths of the planned joint NIRCam and NIRSpec Guaranteed Time Observation program planned for Cycle 1 to generate realistic JWST survey realizations and to model high-redshift galaxy selection completeness. We find that galaxy clustering will be measured with ≳5σ significance at z ∼ 4–10. Halo mass precisions resulting from Cycle 1 angular clustering measurements will be ∼0.2 dex for faint (−18 ≳ $\mathit {M}_{\mathrm{UV}}^{ }$ ≳ −19) galaxies at z ∼ 4–10 as well as ∼0.3 dex for bright ($\mathit {M}_{\mathrm{UV}}^{ }$ ∼ −20) galaxies at z ∼ 4–7. Dedicated spectroscopic follow-up over ∼150 arcmin2 would improve these precisions by ∼0.1 dex by removing chance projections and low-redshift contaminants. Future JWST observations will therefore provide the first constraints on the stellar–halo mass relation in the epoch of reionization and substantially clarify how this relation evolves at z > 4. We also find that ∼1000 individual satellites will be identifiable at z ∼ 4–8 with JWST, enabling strong tests of satellite quenching evolution beyond currently available data (z ≲ 2). Finally, we find that JWST observations can measure the evolution of galaxy major merger pair fractions at z ∼ 4–8 with ∼0.1–0.2 dex uncertainties. Such measurements would help determine the relative role of mergers to the build-up of stellar mass into the epoch of reionization. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present the hestia simulation suite: High-resolutions Environmental Simulations of The Immediate Area, a set of cosmological simulations of the Local Group. Initial conditions constrained by the observed peculiar velocity of nearby galaxies are employed to accurately simulate the local cosmography. Halo pairs that resemble the Local Group are found in low resolutions constrained, dark matter only simulations, and selected for higher resolution magneto hydrodynamic simulation using the arepo code. Baryonic physics follows the auriga model of galaxy formation. The simulations contain a high-resolution region of 3–5 Mpc in radius from the Local Group mid-point embedded in the correct cosmographic landscape. Within this region, a simulated Local Group consisting of a Milky Way and Andromeda like galaxy forms, whose description is in excellent agreement with observations. The simulated Local Group galaxies resemble the Milky Way and Andromeda in terms of their halo mass, mass ratio, stellar disc mass, morphology separation, relative velocity, rotation curves, bulge-disc morphology, satellite galaxy stellar mass function, satellite radial distribution, and in some cases, the presence of a Magellanic cloud like object. Because these simulations properly model the Local Group in their cosmographic context, they provide a testing ground for questions where environment is thought to play an important role. 
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    We perform a simulation with Galacticus, a semi-analytical galaxy formation model, to predict the number counts of H α and [O iii] emitting galaxies. With a state-of-the-art N-body simulation, UNIT, we first calibrate Galacticus with the current observation of H α luminosity function. The resulting model coupled with a dust attenuation model, can reproduce the current observations, including the H α luminosity function from HiZELS and number density from WISP. We extrapolate the model prediction to higher redshift and the result is found to be consistent with previous investigations. We then use the same galaxy formation model to predict the number counts for [O iii] emitting galaxies. The result provides further validation of our galaxy formation model and dust model. We present number counts of H α and [O iii] emission line galaxies for three different line flux limits: 5 × 10−17erg s−1 cm−2, 1 × 10−16 erg s−1 cm−2 (6.5σ nominal depth for WFIRST GRS), and 2 × 10−16 erg s−1 cm−2 (3.5σ depth of Euclid GRS). At redshift 2 < z < 3, our model predicts that WFIRST can observe hundreds of [O iii] emission line galaxies per square degree with a line flux limit of 1 × 10−16 erg s−1 cm−2. This will provide accurate measurement of large-scale structure to probe dark energy over a huge cosmic volume to an unprecedented high redshift. Finally, we compare the flux ratio of H α/[O iii] within the redshift range of 0 < z < 3. Our results show the known trend of increasing H α/[O iii] flux ratio with H α flux at low redshift, which becomes a weaker trend at higher redshifts.

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