skip to main content

Title: Brightest cluster galaxies trace weak lensing mass bias and halo triaxiality in the three hundred project

Galaxy clusters have a triaxial matter distribution. The weak-lensing signal, an important part in cosmological studies, measures the projected mass of all matter along the line of sight, and therefore changes with the orientation of the cluster. Studies suggest that the shape of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the centre of the cluster traces the underlying halo shape, enabling a method to account for projection effects. We use 324 simulated clusters at four redshifts between 0.1 and 0.6 from ‘The Three Hundred Project’ to quantify correlations between the orientation and shape of the BCG and the halo. We find that haloes and their embedded BCGs are aligned, with an average ∼20 degree angle between their major axes. The bias in weak lensing cluster mass estimates correlates with the orientation of both the halo and the BCG. Mimicking observations, we compute the projected shape of the BCG, as a measure of the BCG orientation, and find that it is most strongly correlated to the weak-lensing mass for relaxed clusters. We also test a 2D cluster relaxation proxy measured from BCG mass isocontours. The concentration of stellar mass in the projected BCG core compared to the total stellar mass provides more » an alternative proxy for the BCG orientation. We find that the concentration does not correlate to the weak-lensing mass bias, but does correlate with the true halo mass. These results indicate that the BCG shape and orientation for large samples of relaxed clusters can provide information to improve weak-lensing mass estimates.

« less
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 2178-2193
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present our determination of the baryon budget for an X-ray-selected XXL sample of 136 galaxy groups and clusters spanning nearly two orders of magnitude in mass (M500 ∼ 1013–1015 M⊙) and the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 1. Our joint analysis is based on the combination of Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) weak-lensing mass measurements, XXL X-ray gas mass measurements, and HSC and Sloan Digital Sky Survey multiband photometry. We carry out a Bayesian analysis of multivariate mass-scaling relations of gas mass, galaxy stellar mass, stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and soft-band X-ray luminosity, by taking into account the intrinsic covariance between cluster properties, selection effect, weak-lensing mass calibration, and observational error covariance matrix. The mass-dependent slope of the gas mass–total mass (M500) relation is found to be $1.29_{-0.10}^{+0.16}$, which is steeper than the self-similar prediction of unity, whereas the slope of the stellar mass–total mass relation is shallower than unity; $0.85_{-0.09}^{+0.12}$. The BCG stellar mass weakly depends on cluster mass with a slope of $0.49_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$. The baryon, gas mass, and stellar mass fractions as a function of M500 agree with the results from numerical simulations and previous observations. We successfully constrain the full intrinsicmore »covariance of the baryonic contents. The BCG stellar mass shows the larger intrinsic scatter at a given halo total mass, followed in order by stellar mass and gas mass. We find a significant positive intrinsic correlation coefficient between total (and satellite) stellar mass and BCG stellar mass and no evidence for intrinsic correlation between gas mass and stellar mass. All the baryonic components show no redshift evolution.

    « less

    Galaxy cluster masses, rich with cosmological information, can be estimated from internal dark matter (DM) velocity dispersions, which in turn can be observationally inferred from satellite galaxy velocities. However, galaxies are biased tracers of the DM, and the bias can vary over host halo and galaxy properties as well as time. We precisely calibrate the velocity bias, bv – defined as the ratio of galaxy and DM velocity dispersions – as a function of redshift, host halo mass, and galaxy stellar mass threshold ($M_{\rm \star , sat}$), for massive haloes ($M_{\rm 200c}\gt 10^{13.5} \, {\rm M}_\odot$) from five cosmological simulations: IllustrisTNG, Magneticum, Bahamas + Macsis, The Three Hundred Project, and MultiDark Planck-2. We first compare scaling relations for galaxy and DM velocity dispersion across simulations; the former is estimated using a new ensemble velocity likelihood method that is unbiased for low galaxy counts per halo, while the latter uses a local linear regression. The simulations show consistent trends of bv increasing with M200c and decreasing with redshift and $M_{\rm \star , sat}$. The ensemble-estimated theoretical uncertainty in bv is 2–3 per cent, but becomes percent-level when considering only the three highest resolution simulations. We update the mass–richness normalization for an SDSSmore »redMaPPer cluster sample, and find our improved bv estimates reduce the normalization uncertainty from 22 to 8 per cent, demonstrating that dynamical mass estimation is competitive with weak lensing mass estimation. We discuss necessary steps for further improving this precision. Our estimates for $b_v(M_{\rm 200c}, M_{\rm \star , sat}, z)$ are made publicly available.

    « less

    Galaxy sizes correlate closely with the sizes of their parent dark matter haloes, suggesting a link between halo formation and galaxy growth. However, the precise nature of this relation and its scatter remains to be understood fully, especially for low-mass galaxies. We analyse the galaxy–halo size relation (GHSR) for low-mass ($M_\star \sim 10^{7-9}\, {\rm M}_\odot$) central galaxies over the past 12.5 billion years with the help of cosmological volume simulations (FIREbox) from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. We find a nearly linear relationship between the half-stellar mass galaxy size R1/2 and the parent dark matter halo virial radius Rvir. This relation evolves only weakly since redshift z = 5: $R_{1/2}\, [{\rm kpc}] = (0.053\pm 0.002)(R_{\rm vir}/35\, {\rm kpc})^{0.934\pm 0.054}$, with a nearly constant scatter $\langle \sigma \rangle = 0.084\, [{\rm dex}]$. While this ratio is similar to what is expected from models where galaxy disc sizes are set by halo angular momentum, the low-mass galaxies in our sample are not angular momentum supported, with stellar rotational to circular velocity ratios vrot/vcirc ∼ 0.15. Introducing redshift as another parameter to the GHSR does not decrease the scatter. Furthermore, this scatter does not correlate with any of the halo propertiesmore »we investigate – including spin and concentration – suggesting that baryonic processes and feedback physics are instead critical in setting the scatter in the GHSR. Given the relatively small scatter and the weak dependence of the GHSR on redshift and halo properties for these low-mass central galaxies, we propose using galaxy sizes as an independent method from stellar masses to infer halo masses.

    « less

    Secondary halo properties beyond mass, such as the mass accretion rate (MAR), concentration, and the half mass scale, are essential in understanding the formation of large-scale structure and dark matter haloes. In this paper, we study the impact of secondary halo properties on the galaxy-galaxy lensing observable, ΔΣ. We build an emulator trained on N-body simulations to model ΔΣ and quantify the impact of different secondary parameters on the ΔΣ profile. We focus on the impact of MAR on ΔΣ. We show that a 3σ detection of variations in MAR at fixed halo mass could be achieved with the Hyper Suprime Cam survey assuming no baryonic effects and a proxy for MAR with scatter <1.5. We show that the full radial profile of ΔΣ depends on secondary properties at fixed halo mass. Consequently, an emulator that can perform full shape fitting yields better than two times improvement upon the constraints on MAR than only using the outer part of the halo. Finally, we highlight that miscentring and MAR impact the radial profile of ΔΣ in a similar fashion, implying that miscentring and MAR need to be modelled jointly for unbiased estimates of both effects. We show that present-day lensing datamore »sets have the statistical capability to place constraints on halo MAR within our assumptions. Our analysis opens up new possibilities for observationally measuring the assembly history of the dark matter haloes that host galaxies and clusters.

    « less

    We present the study of the internal dynamics of the intriguing galaxy cluster Abell 1703, a system hosting a probable giant radio halo whose dynamical status is still controversial. Our analysis is based on unpublished spectroscopic data acquired at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and data publicly available in the literature. We also use photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We select 147 cluster members and compute the cluster redshift 〈z〉 ∼ 0.277 and the global line-of-sight velocity dispersion σv ∼ 1300 km s−1. We infer that Abell 1703 is a massive cluster: M200 ∼ 1–2 × 1015 M⊙. The results of our study disagree with the picture of an unimodal, relaxed cluster as suggested by previous studies based on the gravitational lensing analysis and support the view of a perturbed dynamics proposed by recent works based on Chandra X-ray data. The first strong evidence of a dynamically disturbed cluster comes from the peculiarity of the BCG velocity with respect to the first moment of the velocity distribution of member galaxies. Moreover, several statistical tests employed to study the cluster galaxies kinematics find significant evidence of substructure, being Abell 1703 composed by at least two or three subclumps probably caught after the core–core passage. In this observational scenario,more »the suspected existence of a radio halo in the centre of this cluster is not surprising and well agrees with the theoretical models describing diffuse radio sources in clusters.

    « less