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  1. Text-to-image generative models have achieved unprecedented success in generating high-quality images based on natural language descriptions. However, it is shown that these models tend to favor specific social groups when prompted with neutral text descriptions (e.g., ‘a photo of a lawyer’). Following Zhao et al. (2021), we study the effect on the diversity of the generated images when adding ethical intervention that supports equitable judgment (e.g., ‘if all individuals can be a lawyer irrespective of their gender’) in the input prompts. To this end, we introduce an Ethical NaTural Language Interventions in Text-to-Image GENeration (ENTIGEN) benchmark dataset to evaluate the change in image generations conditional on ethical interventions across three social axes – gender, skin color, and culture. Through CLIP-based and human evaluation on minDALL.E, DALL.E-mini and Stable Diffusion, we find that the model generations cover diverse social groups while preserving the image quality. In some cases, the generations would be anti-stereotypical (e.g., models tend to create images with individuals that are perceived as man when fed with prompts about makeup) in the presence of ethical intervention. Preliminary studies indicate that a large change in the model predictions is triggered by certain phrases such as ‘irrespective of gender’ in themore »context of gender bias in the ethical interventions. We release code and annotated data at« less
  2. The maintenance of males at intermediate frequencies is an important evolutionary problem. Several species of Caenorhabditis nematodes have evolved a mating system in which selfing hermaphrodites and males coexist. While selfing produces XX hermaphrodites, cross-fertilization produces 50% XO male progeny. Thus, male mating success dictates the sex ratio. Here, we focus on the contribution of the male secreted short (mss) gene family to male mating success, sex ratio, and population growth. The mss family is essential for sperm competitiveness in gonochoristic species, but has been lost in parallel in androdioecious species. Using a transgene to restore mss function to the androdioecious Caenorhabditis briggsae, we examined how mating system and population subdivision influence the fitness of the mss+ genotype. Consistent with theoretical expectations, when mss+ and mss-null (i.e., wild type) genotypes compete, mss+ is positively selected in both mixed-mating and strictly outcrossing situations, though more strongly in the latter. Thus, while sexual mode alone affects the fitness of mss+, it is insufficient to explain its parallel loss. However, in genetically homogenous androdioecious populations, mss+ both increases male frequency and depresses population growth. We propose that the lack of inbreeding depression and the strong subdivision that characterize natural Caenorhabditis populations impose selectionmore »on sex ratio that makes loss of mss adaptive after self-fertility evolves.« less