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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Studies of laser-driven strong field processes subjected to a (quasi-)static field have been mainly confined to theory. Here we provide an experimental realization by introducing a bichromatic approach for high harmonic generation (HHG) in a dielectric that combines an intense 70 femtosecond duration mid-infrared driving field with a weak 2 picosecond period terahertz (THz) dressing field. We address the physics underlying the THz field induced static symmetry breaking and its consequences on the efficient production/suppression of even-/odd-order harmonics, and demonstrate the ability to probe the HHG dynamics via the modulation of the harmonic distribution. Moreover, we report a delay-dependent even-order harmonic frequency shift that is proportional to the time derivative of the THz field. This suggests a limitation of the static symmetry breaking interpretation and implies that the resultant attosecond bursts are aperiodic, thus providing a frequency domain probe of attosecond transients while opening opportunities in precise attosecond pulse shaping.

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  4. Abstract

    Gravitational-wave (GW) radiation from a coalescing compact binary is a standard siren, as the luminosity distance of each event can be directly measured from the amplitude of the signal. One possibility to constrain cosmology using the GW siren is to perform statistical inference on a population of binary black hole (BBH) events. In essence, this statistical method can be viewed as follows. We can modify the shape of the distribution of observed BBH events by changing the cosmological parameters until it eventually matches the distribution constructed from an astrophysical population model, thereby allowing us to determine the cosmological parameters. In this work, we derive the Cramér–Rao bound for both cosmological parameters and those governing the astrophysical population model from this statistical dark siren method by examining the Fisher information contained in the event distribution. Our study provides analytical insights and enables fast yet accurate estimations of the statistical accuracy of dark siren cosmology. Furthermore, we consider the bias in cosmology due to unmodeled substructures in the merger rate and mass distribution. We find that a 1% deviation in the astrophysical model can lead to a more than 1% error in the Hubble constant. This could limit the accuracy of dark siren cosmology when there are more than 104BBH events detected.

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    Tidal interactions in coalescing binary neutron stars modify the dynamics of the inspiral and hence imprint a signature on their gravitational wave (GW) signals in the form of an extra phase shift. We need accurate models for the tidal phase shift in order to constrain the supranuclear equation of state from observations. In previous studies, GW waveform models were typically constructed by treating the tide as a linear response to a perturbing tidal field. In this work, we incorporate non-linear corrections due to hydrodynamic three- and four-mode interactions and show how they can improve the accuracy and explanatory power of waveform models. We set up and numerically solve the coupled differential equations for the orbit and the modes and analytically derive solutions of the system’s equilibrium configuration. Our analytical solutions agree well with the numerical ones up to the merger and involve only algebraic relations, allowing for fast phase shift and waveform evaluations for different equations of state over a large parameter space. We find that, at Newtonian order, non-linear fluid effects can enhance the tidal phase shift by $\gtrsim 1\, {\rm radian}$ at a GW frequency of 1000 Hz, corresponding to a $10{{\%}}-20{{\%}}$ correction to the linear theory. The scale of the additional phase shift near the merger is consistent with the difference between numerical relativity and theoretical predictions that account only for the linear tide. Non-linear fluid effects are thus important when interpreting the results of numerical relativity and in the construction of waveform models for current and future GW detectors.

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  6. Non-interferometric quantitative phase imaging based on Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE) has been widely used in bio-medical imaging. However, analytic TIE phase retrieval is prone to low-spatial frequency noise amplification, which is caused by the illposedness of inversion at the origin of the spectrum. There are also retrieval ambiguities resulting from the lack of sensitivity to the curl component of the Poynting vector occurring with strong absorption. Here, we establish a physics-informed neural network (PINN) to address these issues, by integrating the forward and inverse physics models into a cascaded deep neural network. We demonstrate that the proposed PINN is efficiently trained using a small set of sample data, enabling the conversion of noise-corrupted 2-shot TIE phase retrievals to high quality phase images under partially coherent LED illumination. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated by both simulation using a standard image database and experiment using human buccal epitehlial cells. In particular, high image quality (SSIM = 0.919) is achieved experimentally using a reduced size of labeled data (140 image pairs). We discuss the robustness of the proposed approach against insufficient training data, and demonstrate that the parallel architecture of PINN is efficient for transfer learning.

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  7. Abstract

    High-eccentricity tidal migration is a potential formation channel for hot Jupiters. During this process, the planetary f-mode may experience a phase of diffusive growth, allowing its energy to quickly build up to large values. In Yu et al., we demonstrated that nonlinear mode interactions between a parent f-mode and daughter f- and p-modes expand the parameter space over which the diffusive growth of the parent is triggered. We extend that study by incorporating (1) the angular momentum transfer between the orbit and the mode, and consequently the evolution of the pericenter distance; (2) a prescription to regulate the nonlinear frequency shift at high parent mode energies; and (3) dissipation of the parent’s energy due to both turbulent convective damping of the daughter modes and strongly nonlinear wave-breaking events. The new ingredients allow us to follow the coupled evolution of the mode and orbit over ≳104yr, covering the diffusive evolution from its onset to its termination. We find that the semimajor axis shrinks by a factor of nearly 10 over 104yr, corresponding to a tidal quality factor10. The f-mode’s diffusive growth terminates while the eccentricity is still high, at arounde= 0.8–0.95. Using these results, we revisit the eccentricity distribution of proto-hot Jupiters. We estimate that less than 1 proto-HJ with eccentricity >0.9 should be expected in Kepler's data once the diffusive regime is accounted for, explaining the observed paucity of this population.

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