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Creators/Authors contains: "Yu, Hang"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  2. Freitag, M (Ed.)
    Abstract Heterochromatin, a transcriptionally silenced chromatin domain, is important for genome stability and gene expression. Histone 3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and histone hypoacetylation are conserved epigenetic hallmarks of heterochromatin. In fission yeast, RNA interference (RNAi) plays a key role in H3K9 methylation and heterochromatin silencing. However, how RNAi machinery and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are coordinated to ensure proper heterochromatin assembly is still unclear. Previously, we showed that Dpb4, a conserved DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, plays a key role in the recruitment of HDACs to heterochromatin during S phase. Here, we identified a novel RNA-binding protein Dri1 that interacts withmore »Dpb4. GFP-tagged Dri1 forms distinct foci mostly in the nucleus, showing a high degree of colocalization with Swi6/Heterochromatin Protein 1. Deletion of dri1+ leads to defects in silencing, H3K9me, and heterochromatic siRNA generation. We also showed that Dri1 physically associates with heterochromatic transcripts, and is required for the recruitment of the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex via interacting with the complex. Furthermore, loss of Dri1 decreases the association of the Sir2 HDAC with heterochromatin. We further demonstrated that the C-terminus of Dri1 that includes an intrinsically disordered (IDR) region and three zinc fingers is crucial for its role in silencing. Together, our evidences suggest that Dri1 facilitates heterochromatin assembly via the RNAi pathway and HDAC.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2022
  4. Among metal additive manufacturing technologies, additive friction stir deposition stands out for its ability to create freeform and fully-dense structures without melting and solidification. Here, we employ a comparative approach to investigate the process-microstructure linkages in additive friction stir deposition, utilizing two materials with distinct thermomechanical behavior—an Al-Mg-Si alloy and Cu—both of which are challenging to print using beam-based additive processes. The deposited Al-Mg-Si is shown to exhibit a relatively homogeneous microstructure with extensive subgrain formation and a strong shear texture, whereas the deposited Cu is characterized by a wide distribution of grain sizes and a weaker shear texture. Wemore »show evidence that the microstructure in Al-Mg-Si primarily evolves by continuous dynamic recrystallization, including geometric dynamic recrystallization and progressive lattice rotation, while the heterogeneous microstructure of Cu results from discontinuous recrystallization during both deposition and cooling. In Al-Mg-Si, the continuous recrystallization progresses with an increase of the applied strain, which correlates with the ratio between the tool rotation rate and travel velocity. Conversely, the microstructure evolution in Cu is found to be less dependent on , instead varying more with changes to . This difference originates from the absence of Cu rotation in the deposition zone, which reduces the influence of tool rotation on strain development. We attribute the distinct process-microstructure linkages and the underlying mechanisms between Al-Mg-Si and Cu to their differences in intrinsic thermomechanical properties and interactions with the tool head.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2022
  5. ABSTRACT Compact white dwarf (WD) binaries are important sources for space-based gravitational-wave (GW) observatories, and an increasing number of them are being identified by surveys like Extremely Low Mass (ELM) and Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). We study the effects of non-linear dynamical tides in such binaries. We focus on the global three-mode parametric instability and show that it has a much lower threshold energy than the local wave-breaking condition studied previously. By integrating networks of coupled modes, we calculate the tidal dissipation rate as a function of orbital period. We construct phenomenological models that match these numerical results and usemore »them to evaluate the spin and luminosity evolution of a WD binary. While in linear theory the WD’s spin frequency can lock to the orbital frequency, we find that such a lock cannot be maintained when non-linear effects are taken into account. Instead, as the orbit decays, the spin and orbit go in and out of synchronization. Each time they go out of synchronization, there is a brief but significant dip in the tidal heating rate. While most WDs in compact binaries should have luminosities that are similar to previous traveling-wave estimates, a few per cent should be about 10 times dimmer because they reside in heating rate dips. This offers a potential explanation for the low luminosity of the CO WD in J0651. Lastly, we consider the impact of tides on the GW signal and show that the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and TianGO can constrain the WD’s moment of inertia to better than $1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ for centi-Hz systems.« less
  6. Additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) is an emerging solid-state metal additive manufacturing technology renowned for strong interface adhesion and isotropic mechanical properties. This is postulated to result from the material flow phenomena near the interface, but experimental corroboration has remained absent. Here, we seek to understand the interface formed in AFSD via morphological and microstructural investigation, wherein the non-planar interfacial morphology is characterized on the track-scale (centimeter scale) using X-ray computed tomography and the material deformation history is explored by microstructure mapping at the interfacial regions. X-ray computed tomography reveals unique 3D features at the interface with significant macroscopic materialmore »mixing. In the out-of-plane direction, the deposited material inserts below the initial substrate surface in the feed-rod zone, while the substrate surface surges upwards in the tool protrusion-affected zone. Complex 3D structures like fins and serrations form on the advancing side, leading to structural interlocking; on the retreating side, the interface manifests as a smooth sloped surface. Microstructure mapping reveals a uniform thermomechanical history for the deposited material, which develops a homogeneous, almost fully recrystallized microstructure. The substrate surface develops partially recrystallized microstructures that are location-dependent; more intra-granular orientation gradients are found in the regions further away from the centerline of the deposition track. From these observations, we discuss the mechanisms for interfacial material flow and interface morphology formation during AFSD.« less