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  1. Abstract During progression from carcinoma in situ to an invasive tumor, the immune system is engaged in complex sets of interactions with various tumor cells. Tumor cell plasticity alters disease trajectories via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Several of the same pathways that regulate EMT are involved in tumor-immune interactions, yet little is known about the mechanisms and consequences of crosstalk between these regulatory processes. Here we introduce a multiscale evolutionary model to describe tumor-immune-EMT interactions and their impact on epithelial cancer progression from in situ to invasive disease. Through simulation of patient cohorts in silico, the model predicts that a controllable region maximizes invasion-free survival. This controllable region depends on properties of the mesenchymal tumor cell phenotype: its growth rate and its immune-evasiveness. In light of the model predictions, we analyze EMT-inflammation-associated data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and find that association with EMT worsens invasion-free survival probabilities. This result supports the predictions of the model, and leads to the identification of genes that influence outcomes in bladder and uterine cancer, including FGF pathway members. These results suggest new means to delay disease progression, and demonstrate the importance of studying cancer-immune interactions in light of EMT. 
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  2. Abstract

    Authigenic greigite may form at any time within a sediment during diagenesis. Its formation pathway, timing of formation, and geological preservation potential are key to resolving the fidelity of (paleo‐)magnetic signals in greigite‐bearing sediments. In the cored sequence of the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 362 (Sumatra Subduction Margin), multiple organic‐rich mudstone horizons have high magnetic susceptibilities. The high‐susceptibility horizons occur immediately below the most bioturbated intervals at the top of muddy turbidite beds. Combined mineral magnetic, microscopic, and chemical analyses on both thin sections and magnetic mineral extracts of sediments from a typical interval (∼1,103.80–1,108.80 m below seafloor) reveal the presence of coarse‐grained greigite aggregates (particles up to 50–75 μm in size). The greigite formed under nonsteady state conditions caused by the successive turbidites. Organic matter, iron (oxy)(hydr)oxides, Fe2+, and sulfides and/or sulfate were enriched in these intensively bioturbated horizons. This facilitated greigite formation and preservation within a closed diagenetic system created by the ensuing turbidite pulse, where pyritization was arrested due to insufficient sulfate supply relative to Fe (oxy)(hydr)oxide. This may represent a novel greigite formation pathway under conditions modulated by turbidites and bioturbation. Paleomagnetic analyses indicate that the early diagenetic greigite preserves primary (quasi‐)syn‐sedimentary magnetic records. The extremely high greigite content (0.06–1.30 wt% with an average of 0.50 wt% estimated from their saturation magnetization) implies that the bioturbated turbiditic deposits are an important sink for iron and sulfur. Mineral magnetic methods, thus, may offer a window to better understand the marine Fe–S–C cycle.

     
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  3. Encapsulation of ionic nanoparticles in a hydrogel microparticle, i.e. microgel, produces a target-stimulated probe for molecular detection. Selective reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggers the release of cations from the microgel which subsequently turn on the fluorogenic dyes to emit intense fluorescence, permiting rapid detection of ROS or ROS-producing molecules. The ROS-responsive microgel provides the advantages of simple fabrication, bright and stable signals, easy handling, and rapid response, carrying high promises in biomedical applications. 
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  4. Abstract

    3D printing, as an additive manufacturing technology, enables agile and free‐form fabrication of complex 3D structures relevant to industrial application. However, the 3D structure forming mechanisms in existing 3D printing technologies hinder and even prevent the manufacturing of ultra‐precision 3D metal parts, let alone parallel process manufacturing. A generic 3D electrochemical microprinting technology that allowed the “printing” of ultrahigh density, ultrahigh aspect ratio, and electronics quality 3D copper structures with microscale and even nanoscale precision in an ambient environment is developed here. Further on, the feedback‐controlled and self‐regulated “printing” mechanism was demonstrated to be capable of realizing parallel process 3D “printing” of an array of identical copper microstructures simultaneously, promising large‐scale 3D printing–based production of precision metal structures for broad applications in 3D integration of electronics and sensor systems.

     
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