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  1. The rapid development of deep neural networks and generative AI has catalyzed growth in realistic speech synthesis. While this technology has great potential to improve lives, it also leads to the emergence of ''DeepFake'' where synthesized speech can be misused to deceive humans and machines for nefarious purposes. In response to this evolving threat, there has been a significant amount of interest in mitigating this threat by DeepFake detection. Complementary to the existing work, we propose to take the preventative approach and introduce AntiFake, a defense mechanism that relies on adversarial examples to prevent unauthorized speech synthesis. To ensure the transferability to attackers' unknown synthesis models, an ensemble learning approach is adopted to improve the generalizability of the optimization process. To validate the efficacy of the proposed system, we evaluated AntiFake against five state-of-the-art synthesizers using real-world DeepFake speech samples. The experiments indicated that AntiFake achieved over 95% protection rate even to unknown black-box models. We have also conducted usability tests involving 24 human participants to ensure the solution is accessible to diverse populations. 
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  2. Recent advances in large language models (LMs) have facilitated their ability to synthesize programming code. However, they have also raised concerns about intellectual property (IP) rights violations. Despite the significance of this issue, it has been relatively less explored. In this paper, we aim to bridge the gap by presenting CODEIPPROMPT, a platform for automatic evaluation of the extent to which code language models may reproduce licensed programs. It comprises two key components: prompts constructed from a licensed code database to elicit LMs to generate IP-violating code, and a measurement tool to evaluate the extent of IP violation of code LMs. We conducted an extensive evaluation of existing open-source code LMs and commercial products, and revealed the prevalence of IP violations in all these models. We further identified that the root cause is the substantial proportion of training corpus subject to restrictive licenses, resulting from both intentional inclusion and inconsistent license practice in the real world. To address this issue, we also explored potential mitigation strategies, including fine-tuning and dynamic token filtering. Our study provides a testbed for evaluating the IP violation issues of the existing code generation platforms and stresses the need for a better mitigation strategy. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 23, 2024
  3. Explainability is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the broader adoption of machine learning (ML), particularly for safety-critical applications. This has given rise to explainable ML, which seeks to enhance the explainability of neural networks through the use of explanators. Yet, the pursuit for better explainability inadvertently leads to increased security and privacy risks. While there has been considerable research into the security risks of explainable ML, its potential privacy risks remain under-explored. To bridge this gap, we present a systematic study of privacy risks in explainable ML through the lens of membership inference. Building on the observation that, besides the accuracy of the model, robustness also exhibits observable differences among member samples and non-member samples, we develop a new membership inference attack. This attack extracts additional membership features from changes in model confidence under different levels of perturbations guided by the importance highlighted by the attribution maps in the explanators. Intuitively, perturbing important features generally results in a bigger loss in confidence for member samples. Using the member-non-member differences in both model performance and robustness, an attack model is trained to distinguish the membership. We evaluated our approach with seven popular explanators across various benchmark models and datasets. Our attack demonstrates there is non-trivial privacy leakage in current explainable ML methods. Furthermore, such leakage issue persists even if the attacker lacks the knowledge of training datasets or target model architectures. Lastly, we also found existing model and output-based defense mechanisms are not effective in mitigating this new attack. 
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