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    The cosmological inflow of a galaxy is speculated to be able to enter the galaxy and enhance the star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR). In this paper, by performing high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations in the framework of macer, we investigate the fate of the inflow and its impacts on the evolution of a massive elliptical galaxy. The inflow properties are adopted from the cosmological simulation IllustrisTNG. We find that the inflow gas hardly enters but is blocked beyond ∼20 kpc from the central galaxy and becomes part of the circumgalactic medium (CGM). The gas pressure gradient, mainly contributed by the thermalized stellar wind and subdominant contributed by the energy input from the active galactic nuclei (AGNs), balances gravity and prevents the inflow from entering the galaxy. The SFR and BHAR are almost not affected by the normal inflow. However, if the rate of cosmological inflow were increased by a factor of 3, a small fraction of the inflow would enter the galaxy and contribute about 10 per cent of the gas in the galaxy. In this case, the gas density in the galaxy would increase by a factor of $\gtrsim$20. This increase is not because of the additional gasmore »supply by the inflow but due to the increase of gas density and pressure in the CGM caused by the inflow. Consequently, the SFR and BHAR would increase by a factor of ∼5 and ∼1000, respectively. Finally, AGN feedback can perturb the motion of the inflow and heat the CGM through its intermittent outbursts.

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  2. A set of design rules reveals how disordered proteins can impact membrane curvature.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 7, 2024
  3. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is essential for the removal of transmembrane proteins from the plasma membrane in all eukaryotic cells. Many transmembrane proteins are glycosylated. These proteins collectively comprise the glycocalyx, a sugar-rich layer at the cell surface, which is responsible for intercellular adhesion and recognition. Previous work has suggested that glycosylation of transmembrane proteins reduces their removal from the plasma membrane by endocytosis. However, the mechanism responsible for this effect remains unknown. To study the impact of glycosylation on endocytosis, we replaced the ectodomain of the transferrin receptor, a well-studied transmembrane protein that undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis, with the ectodomain of MUC1, which is highly glycosylated. When we expressed this transmembrane fusion protein in mammalian epithelial cells, we found that its recruitment to endocytic structures was substantially reduced in comparison to a version of the protein that lacked the MUC1 ectodomain. This reduction could not be explained by a loss of mobility on the cell surface or changes in endocytic dynamics. Instead, we found that the bulky MUC1 ectodomain presented a steric barrier to endocytosis. Specifically, the peptide backbone of the ectodomain and its glycosylation each made steric contributions, which drove comparable reductions in endocytosis. These results suggest that glycosylation constitutes amore »biophysical signal for retention of transmembrane proteins at the plasma membrane. This mechanism could be modulated in multiple disease states that exploit the glycocalyx, from cancer to atherosclerosis.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 11, 2024
  4. Abstract An important parameter in the theory of hot accretion flows around black holes is δ , which describes the fraction of “viscously” dissipated energy in the accretion flow that goes directly into heating electrons. For a given mass accretion rate, the radiative efficiency of a hot accretion flow is determined by δ . Unfortunately, the value of δ is hard to determine from first principles. The recent Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration (EHTC) results on M87* and Sgr A* provide us with a different way of constraining δ . By combining the mass accretion rates in M87* and Sgr A* estimated by the EHTC with the measured bolometric luminosities of the two sources, we derive good constraints on the radiative efficiencies of the respective accretion flows. In parallel, we use a theoretical model of hot magnetically arrested disks (MADs) to calculate the expected radiative efficiency as a function of δ (and accretion rate). By comparing the EHTC-derived radiative efficiencies with the theoretical results from MAD models, we find that Sgr A* requires δ ≳ 0.3. A similar comparison in the case of M87* gives inconclusive results as there is still a large uncertainty in the accretion rate in this source.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 30, 2023
  5. Streams of intergalactic gas enriched by previous star formation were observed spiraling toward a massive galaxy.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 5, 2024
  6. Abstract

    Despite recent advances in phylogenomics, the early evolution of the largest bee family, Apidae, remains uncertain, hindering efforts to understand the history of Apidae and establish a robust comparative framework. Confirming the position of Anthophorinae—a diverse, globally distributed lineage of apid bees—has been particularly problematic, with the subfamily recovered in various conflicting positions, including as sister to all other Apidae or to the cleptoparasitic Nomadinae. We aimed to resolve relationships in Apidae and Anthophorinae by combining dense taxon sampling, with rigorous phylogenomic analysis of a dataset consisting of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) acquired from multiple sources, including low-coverage genomes. Across a diverse set of analyses, including both concatenation and species tree approaches, and numerous permutations designed to account for systematic biases, Anthophorinae was consistently recovered as the sister group to all remaining Apidae, with Nomadinae sister to (Apinae, [Xylocopinae, Eucerinae]). However, several alternative support metrics (concordance factors, quartet sampling, and gene genealogy interrogation) indicate that this result should be treated with caution. Within Anthophorinae, all genera were recovered as monophyletic, following synonymization of Varthemapistra with Habrophorula. Our results demonstrate the value of dense taxon sampling in bee phylogenomics research and how implementing diverse analytical strategies is important for fully evaluatingmore »results at difficult nodes.

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  7. Abstract Misalignment between rotation and magnetic fields has been suggested to be one type of physical mechanism that can ease the effects of magnetic braking during the collapse of cloud cores leading to the formation of protostellar disks. However, its essential factors are poorly understood. Therefore, we perform a more detailed analysis of the physics involved. We analyze existing simulation data to measure the system torques, mass accretion rates, and Toomre Q parameters. We also examine the presence of shocks in the system. While advective torques are generally the strongest, we find that magnetic and gravitational torques can play substantial roles in how angular momentum is transferred during the disk formation process. Magnetic torques can shape the accretion flows, creating two-armed magnetized inflow spirals aligned with the magnetic field. We find evidence of an accretion shock that is aligned according to the spiral structure of the system. Inclusion of ambipolar diffusion as explored in this work has shown a slight influence in the small-scale structures but not in the main morphology. We discuss potential candidate systems where some of these phenomena could be present.
  8. The authors reveal a thermal actuating bilayer that undergoes reversible deformation in response to low-energy thermal stimuli, for example, a few degrees of temperature increase. It is made of an aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet covalently connected to a polymer layer in which dibenzocycloocta-1,5-diene (DBCOD) actuating units are oriented parallel to CNTs. Upon exposure to low-energy thermal stimulation, coordinated submolecular-level conformational changes of DBCODs result in macroscopic thermal contraction. This unique thermal contraction offers distinct advantages. It’s inherently fast, repeatable, low-energy driven, and medium independent. The covalent interface and reversible nature of the conformational change bestow this bilayer with excellent repeatability, up to at least 70 000 cycles. Unlike conventional CNT bilayer systems, this system can achieve high precision actuation readily and can be scaled down to nanoscale. A new platform made of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in tandem with the bilayer can harvest low-grade thermal energy and convert it into electricity. The platform produces 86 times greater energy than PVDF alone upon exposure to 6 °C thermal fluctuations above room temperature. This platform provides a pathway to low-grade thermal energy harvesting. It also enables low-energy driven thermal artificial robotics, ultrasensitive thermal sensors, and remote controlled near infrared (NIR) driven actuators.
  9. Membrane bending is a ubiquitous cellular process that is required for membrane traffic, cell motility, organelle biogenesis, and cell division. Proteins that bind to membranes using specific structural features, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped scaffolds, are thought to be the primary drivers of membrane bending. However, many membrane-binding proteins have substantial regions of intrinsic disorder which lack a stable three-dimensional structure. Interestingly, many of these disordered domains have recently been found to form networks stabilized by weak, multivalent contacts, leading to assembly of protein liquid phases on membrane surfaces. Here we ask how membrane-associated protein liquids impact membrane curvature. We find that protein phase separation on the surfaces of synthetic and cell-derived membrane vesicles creates a substantial compressive stress in the plane of the membrane. This stress drives the membrane to bend inward, creating protein-lined membrane tubules. A simple mechanical model of this process accurately predicts the experimentally measured relationship between the rigidity of the membrane and the diameter of the membrane tubules. Discovery of this mechanism, which may be relevant to a broad range of cellular protrusions, illustrates that membrane remodeling is not exclusive to structured scaffolds but can also be driven by the rapidly emerging classmore »of liquid-like protein networks that assemble at membranes.

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