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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 29, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 3, 2025
  3. Abstract

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is essential for determining atomic scale structures in structural biology and materials science. In structural biology, three-dimensional structures of proteins are routinely determined from thousands of identical particles using phase-contrast TEM. In materials science, three-dimensional atomic structures of complex nanomaterials have been determined using atomic electron tomography (AET). However, neither of these methods can determine the three-dimensional atomic structure of heterogeneous nanomaterials containing light elements. Here, we perform ptychographic electron tomography from 34.5 million diffraction patterns to reconstruct an atomic resolution tilt series of a double wall-carbon nanotube (DW-CNT) encapsulating a complex ZrTe sandwich structure. Class averaging the resulting tilt series images and subpixel localization of the atomic peaks reveals a Zr11Te50structure containing a previously unobserved ZrTe2phase in the core. The experimental realization of atomic resolution ptychographic electron tomography will allow for the structural determination of a wide range of beam-sensitive nanomaterials containing light elements.

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  4. Abstract Solid–liquid phase transitions are basic physical processes, but atomically resolved microscopy has yet to capture their full dynamics. A new technique is developed for controlling the melting and freezing of self‐assembled molecular structures on a graphene field‐effect transistor (FET) that allows phase‐transition behavior to be imaged using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy. This is achieved by applying electric fields to 2,3,5,6‐tetrafluoro‐7,7,8,8‐tetracyanoquinodimethane‐decorated FETs to induce reversible transitions between molecular solid and liquid phases at the FET surface. Nonequilibrium melting dynamics are visualized by rapidly heating the graphene substrate with an electrical current and imaging the resulting evolution toward new 2D equilibrium states. An analytical model is developed that explains observed mixed‐state phases based on spectroscopic measurement of solid and liquid molecular energy levels. The observed nonequilibrium melting dynamics are consistent with Monte Carlo simulations. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 3, 2024
  5. Abstract

    In recent years, correlated insulating states, unconventional superconductivity, and topologically non-trivial phases have all been observed in several moiré heterostructures. However, understanding of the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena is hampered by the lack of local electronic structure data. Here, we use scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy to demonstrate how the interplay between correlation, topology, and local atomic structure determines the behaviour of electron-doped twisted monolayer–bilayer graphene. Through gate- and magnetic field-dependent measurements, we observe local spectroscopic signatures indicating a quantum anomalous Hall insulating state with a total Chern number of ±2 at a doping level of three electrons per moiré unit cell. We show that the sign of the Chern number and associated magnetism can be electrostatically switched only over a limited range of twist angle and sample hetero-strain values. This results from a competition between the orbital magnetization of filled bulk bands and chiral edge states, which is sensitive to strain-induced distortions in the moiré superlattice.

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  6. Chemical doping can be used to control the charge-carrier polarity and concentration in two-dimensional van der Waals materials. However, conventional methods based on substitutional doping or surface functionalization result in the degradation of electrical mobility due to structural disorder, and the maximum doping density is set by the solubility limit of dopants. Here we show that a reversible laser-assisted chlorination process can be used to create high doping concentrations (above 3 × 1013 cm−2) in graphene monolayers with minimal drops in mobility. The approach uses two lasers—with distinct photon energies and geometric configurations—that are designed for chlorination and subsequent chlorine removal, allowing highly doped patterns to be written and erased without damaging the graphene. To illustrate the capabilities of our approach, we use it to create rewritable photoactive junctions for graphene-based photodetectors. 
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