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Many real-world scenarios in which DNN-based recognition systems are deployed have inherently fine-grained attributes (e.g., bird-species recognition, medical image classification). In addition to achieving reliable accuracy, a critical subtask for these models is to detect Out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs. Given the nature of the deployment environment, one may expect such OOD inputs to also be fine-grained w.r.t. the known classes (e.g., a novel bird species), which are thus extremely difficult to identify. Unfortunately, OOD detection in fine-grained scenarios remains largely underexplored. In this work, we aim to fill this gap by first carefully constructing four large-scale fine-grained test environments, in which existing methods are shown to have difficulties. Particularly, we find that even explicitly incorporating a diverse set of auxiliary outlier data during training does not provide sufficient coverage over the broad region where fine-grained OOD samples locate. We then propose Mixture Outlier Exposure (MixOE), which mixes ID data and training outliers to expand the coverage of different OOD granularities, and trains the model such that the prediction confidence linearly decays as the input transitions from ID to OOD. Extensive experiments and analyses demonstrate the effectiveness of MixOE for building up OOD detector in fine-grained environments. The code is available at https://github.com/zjysteven/MixOE.more » « less
Emerging resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) has recently been intensively investigated to accelerate the processing of deep neural networks (DNNs). Due to the in-situ computation capability, analog ReRAM crossbars yield significant throughput improvement and energy reduction compared to traditional digital methods. However, the power hungry analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) prevent the practical deployment of ReRAM-based DNN accelerators on end devices with limited chip area and power budget. We observe that due to the limited bitdensity of ReRAM cells, DNN weights are bit sliced and correspondingly stored on multiple ReRAM bitlines. The accumulated current on bitlines resulted by weights directly dictates the overhead of ADCs. As such, bitwise weight sparsity rather than the sparsity of the full weight, is desirable for efficient ReRAM deployment. In this work, we propose bit-slice `1, the first algorithm to induce bit-slice sparsity during the training of dynamic fixed-point DNNs. Experiment results show that our approach achieves 2 sparsity improvement compared to previous algorithms. The resulting sparsity allows the ADC resolution to be reduced to 1-bit of the most significant bit-slice and down to 3-bit for the others bits, which significantly speeds up processing and reduces power and area overhead.more » « less