skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Zhang, Jiyuan"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    We systematically investigate Vandorou et al.’s claim to have detected the host star of the low-mass-ratio (q< 10−4) microlensing planet OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb, via Keck adaptive optics (AO) measurements Δt= 4.12 yr after the event’s peak (t0). If correct, this measurement would contradict the microlens-parallax measurement derived from Spitzer observations taken neart0. We show that this host identification would be in 4σconflict with the original ground-based relative lens–source proper-motion measurements. By contrast, Gould estimated a probabilityp= 10% that the “other star” resolved by single-epoch late-time AO would be a companion to the host or the microlensed source, which is much more probable than a 4σstatistical fluctuation. Independent of this proper-motion discrepancy, the kinematics of this host identification are substantially less probable than those of the Spitzer solution. Hence, this identification should not be accepted, pending additional observations that would either confirm or contradict it, which could be taken in 2023. Motivated by this tension, we present two additional investigations. We explore the possibility that Vandorou et al. identified the wrong “star” for their analysis. Astrometry of KMT and Keck images favors a star (or asterism) lying about 175 mas northwest of Vandorou et al.’s star. We also present event parameters from a combined fit to all survey data, which yields a more precise mass ratio,q= (4.6 ± 0.4) × 10−5. Finally, we discuss the broader implications of minimizing such false positives for the first measurement of the planet mass function, which will become possible when AO on next-generation telescopes are applied to microlensing planets.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    The gravitational microlensing technique is most sensitive to planets in a Jupiter-like orbit and has detected more than 200 planets. However, only a few wide-orbit (s> 2) microlensing planets have been discovered, wheresis the planet-to-host separation normalized to the angular Einstein ring radius,θE. Here, we present the discovery and analysis of a strong candidate wide-orbit microlensing planet in the event OGLE-2017-BLG-0448. The whole light curve exhibits long-term residuals to the static binary-lens single-source model, so we investigate the residuals by adding the microlensing parallax, microlensing xallarap, an additional lens, or an additional source. For the first time, we observe a complex degeneracy between all four effects. The wide-orbit models withs∼ 2.5 and a planet-to-host mass ratio ofq∼ 10−4are significantly preferred, but we cannot rule out the close models withs∼ 0.35 andq∼ 10−3. A Bayesian analysis based on a Galactic model indicates that, despite the complicated degeneracy, the surviving wide-orbit models all contain a super-Earth-mass to Neptune-mass planet at a projected planet-host separation of ∼6 au and the surviving close-orbit models all consist of a Jovian-mass planet at ∼1 au. The host star is probably an M or K dwarf. We discuss the implications of this dimension-degeneracy disaster on microlensing light-curve analysis and its potential impact on statistical studies.

    more » « less
  3. Aims. We inspect the four microlensing events KMT-2021-BLG-1968, KMT-2021-BLG-2010, KMT-2022-BLG-0371, and KMT-2022-BLG-1013, for which the light curves exhibit partially covered short-term central anomalies. We conduct detailed analyses of the events with the aim of revealing the nature of the anomalies. Methods. We tested various models that can explain the anomalies of the individual events, including the binary-lens (2L1S) and binary-source (1L2S) interpretations. Under the 2L1S interpretation, we thoroughly inspected the parameter space to determine the existence of degenerate solutions, and if they existed, we tested whether the degeneracy could be resolved. Results. We find that the anomalies in KMT-2021-BLG-2010 and KMT-2022-BLG-1013 are uniquely defined by planetary-lens interpretations with planet-to-host mass ratios of q ~ 2.8 × 10 −3 and ~1.6 × 10 −3 , respectively. For KMT-2022-BLG-0371, a planetary solution with a mass ratio q ~ 4 × 10 −4 is strongly favored over the other three degenerate 2L1S solutions with different mass ratios based on the χ 2 and relative proper motion arguments, and a 1L2S solution is clearly ruled out. For KMT-2021-BLG-1968, on the other hand, we find that the anomaly can be explained either by a planetary or a binary-source interpretation, making it difficult to firmly identify the nature of the anomaly. From the Bayesian analyses of the identified planetary events, we estimate that the masses of the planet and host are ( M p / M J , M h / M ⊙ ) = (1.07 −0.68 +1.15 , 0.37 −0.23 +0.40 ), (0.26 −0.11 +0.13 , 0.63 −0.28 +0.32 ), and (0.31 −0.16 +0.46 , 0.18 −0.10 +0.28 ) for KMT-2021-BLG-2010L, KMT-2022-BLG-0371L, and KMT-2022-BLG-1013L, respectively. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024

    In this work, we update and develop algorithms for KMTNet tender-love care (TLC) photometry in order to create a new, mostly automated, TLC pipeline. We then start a project to systematically apply the new TLC pipeline to the historic KMTNet microlensing events, and search for buried planetary signals. We report the discovery of such a planet candidate in the microlensing event MOA-2019-BLG-421/KMT-2019-BLG-2991. The anomalous signal can be explained by either a planet around the lens star or the orbital motion of the source star. For the planetary interpretation, despite many degenerate solutions, the planet is most likely to be a Jovian planet orbiting an M or K dwarf, which is a typical microlensing planet. The discovery proves that the project can indeed increase the sensitivity of historic events and find previously undiscovered signals.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract We present the analysis of seven microlensing planetary events with planet/host mass ratios q < 10 −4 : KMT-2017-BLG-1194, KMT-2017-BLG-0428, KMT-2019-BLG-1806, KMT-2017-BLG-1003, KMT-2019-BLG-1367, OGLE-2017-BLG-1806, and KMT-2016-BLG-1105. They were identified by applying the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) AnomalyFinder algorithm to 2016–2019 KMTNet events. A Bayesian analysis indicates that all the lens systems consist of a cold super-Earth orbiting an M or K dwarf. Together with 17 previously published and three that will be published elsewhere, AnomalyFinder has found a total of 27 planets that have solutions with q < 10 −4 from 2016–2019 KMTNet events, which lays the foundation for the first statistical analysis of the planetary mass-ratio function based on KMTNet data. By reviewing the 27 planets, we find that the missing planetary caustics problem in the KMTNet planetary sample has been solved by AnomalyFinder. We also find a desert of high-magnification planetary signals ( A ≳ 65), and a follow-up project for KMTNet high-magnification events could detect at least two more q < 10 −4 planets per year and form an independent statistical sample. 
    more » « less
  6. ABSTRACT We present the observations and analysis of a high-magnification microlensing planetary event, KMT-2022-BLG-0440, for which the weak and short-lived planetary signal was covered by both the KMTNet survey and follow-up observations. The binary-lens models with a central caustic provide the best fits, with a planet/host mass ratio, q = 0.75–1.00 × 10−4 at 1σ. The binary-lens models with a resonant caustic and a brown-dwarf mass ratio are both excluded by Δχ2 > 70. The binary-source model can fit the anomaly well but is rejected by the ‘colour argument’ on the second source. From Bayesian analyses, it is estimated that the host star is likely a K or M dwarf located in the Galactic disc, the planet probably has a Neptune-mass, and the projected planet-host separation is $1.9^{+0.6}_{-0.7}$ or $4.6^{+1.4}_{-1.7}$  au, subject to the close/wide degeneracy. This is the third q < 10−4 planet from a high-magnification planetary signal (A ≳ 65). Together with another such planet, KMT-2021-BLG-0171Lb, the ongoing follow-up program for the KMTNet high-magnification events has demonstrated its ability to detect high-magnification planetary signals for q < 10−4 planets, which are challenging for the current microlensing surveys. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 11, 2024
  7. In recent years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown superior capability in visual learning tasks. While accuracy-wise CNNs provide unprecedented performance, they are also known to be computationally intensive and energy demanding for modern computer systems. In this paper, we propose Virtual Pooling (ViP), a model-level approach to improve speed and energy consumption of CNN-based image classification and object detection tasks, with a provable error bound. We show the efficacy of ViP through experiments on four CNN models, three representative datasets, both desktop and mobile platforms, and two visual learning tasks, i.e., image classification and object detection. For example, ViP delivers 2.1x speedup with less than 1.5% accuracy degradation in ImageNet classification on VGG16, and 1.8x speedup with 0.025 mAP degradation in PASCAL VOC object detection with Faster-RCNN. ViP also reduces mobile GPU and CPU energy consumption by up to 55% and 70%, respectively. As a complementary method to existing acceleration approaches, ViP achieves 1.9x speedup on ThiNet leading to a combined speedup of 5.23x on VGG16. Furthermore, ViP provides a knob for machine learning practitioners to generate a set of CNN models with varying trade-offs between system speed/energy consumption and accuracy to better accommodate the requirements of their tasks. Code is available at 
    more » « less

    Follow-up observations of high-magnification gravitational microlensing events can fully exploit their intrinsic sensitivity to detect extrasolar planets, especially those with small mass ratios. To make followup observations more uniform and efficient, we develop a system, HighMagFinder, to automatically alert possible ongoing high-magnification events based on the real-time data from the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet). We started a new phase of follow-up observations with the help of HighMagFinder in 2021. Here we report the discovery of two planets in high-magnification microlensing events, KMT-2021-BLG-0171 and KMT-2021-BLG-1689, which were identified by the HighMagFinder. We find that both events suffer the ‘central-resonant’ caustic degeneracy. The planet-host mass-ratio is q ∼ 4.7 × 10−5 or q ∼ 2.2 × 10−5 for KMT-2021-BLG-0171, and q ∼ 2.5 × 10−4 or q ∼ 1.8 × 10−4 for KMT-2021-BLG-1689. Together with two other events, four cases that suffer such degeneracy have been discovered in the 2021 season alone, indicating that the degenerate solutions may have been missed in some previous studies. We also propose a quantitative factor to weight the probability of each solution from the phase space. The resonant interpretations for the two events are disfavoured under this consideration. This factor can be included in future statistical studies to weight degenerate solutions.

    more » « less