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Creators/Authors contains: "Zhang, Junya"

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  1. Abstract

    Historically, xenia effects were hypothesized to be unique genetic contributions of pollen to seed phenotype, but most examples represent standard complementation of Mendelian traits. We identified the imprinteddosage-effect defective1(ded1) locus in maize (Zea mays) as a paternal regulator of seed size and development. Hypomorphic alleles show a 5–10% seed weight reduction whended1is transmitted through the male, while homozygous mutants are defective with a 70–90% seed weight reduction.Ded1encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor expressed specifically during early endosperm development with paternal allele bias. DED1 directly activates early endosperm genes and endosperm adjacent to scutellum cell layer genes, while directly repressing late grain-fill genes. These results demonstrate xenia as originally defined: Imprinting ofDed1causes the paternal allele to set the pace of endosperm development thereby influencing grain set and size.

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  2. Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun (Ed.)
    The post-translational addition of SUMO plays essential roles in numerous eukaryotic processes including cell division, transcription, chromatin organization, DNA repair, and stress defense through its selective conjugation to numerous targets. One prominent plant SUMO ligase is METHYL METHANESULFONATE-SENSITIVE (MMS)-21/HIGH-PLOIDY (HPY)-2/NON-SMC-ELEMENT (NSE)-2, which has been connected genetically to development and endoreduplication. Here, we describe the potential functions of MMS21 through a collection of UniformMu and CRISPR/Cas9 mutants in maize ( Zea mays ) that display either seed lethality or substantially compromised pollen germination and seed/vegetative development. RNA-seq analyses of leaves, embryos, and endosperm from mms21 plants revealed a substantial dysregulation of the maize transcriptome, including the ectopic expression of seed storage protein mRNAs in leaves and altered accumulation of mRNAs associated with DNA repair and chromatin dynamics. Interaction studies demonstrated that MMS21 associates in the nucleus with the NSE4 and STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE OF CHROMOSOMES (SMC)-5 components of the chromatin organizer SMC5/6 complex, with in vitro assays confirming that MMS21 will SUMOylate SMC5. Comet assays measuring genome integrity, sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, and protein versus mRNA abundance comparisons implicated MMS21 in chromatin stability and transcriptional controls on proteome balance. Taken together, we propose that MMS21-directed SUMOylation of the SMC5/6 complex and other targets enables proper gene expression by influencing chromatin structure. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Chloroplasts are of prokaryotic origin with a double-membrane envelope separating plastid metabolism from the cytosol. Envelope membrane proteins integrate chloroplasts with the cell, but envelope biogenesis mechanisms remain elusive. We show that maize defective kernel5 (dek5) is critical for envelope biogenesis. Amyloplasts and chloroplasts are larger and reduced in number in dek5 with multiple ultrastructural defects. The DEK5 protein is homologous to rice SSG4, Arabidopsis thaliana EMB2410/TIC236, and Escherichia coli tamB. TamB functions in bacterial outer membrane biogenesis. DEK5 is localized to the envelope with a topology analogous to TamB. Increased levels of soluble sugars in dek5 developing endosperm and elevated osmotic pressure in mutant leaf cells suggest defective intracellular solute transport. Proteomics and antibody-based analyses show dek5 reduces levels of Toc75 and chloroplast envelope transporters. Moreover, dek5 chloroplasts reduce inorganic phosphate uptake with at least an 80% reduction relative to normal chloroplasts. These data suggest that DEK5 functions in plastid envelope biogenesis to enable transport of metabolites and proteins. 
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