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  1. Proteomics plays a vital role in biomedical research in the post-genomic era. With the technological revolution and emerging computational and statistic models, proteomic methodology has evolved rapidly in the past decade and shed light on solving complicated biomedical problems. Here, we summarize scientific research and clinical practice of existing and emerging high-throughput proteomics approaches, including mass spectrometry, protein pathway array, next-generation tissue microarrays, single-cell proteomics, single-molecule proteomics, Luminex, Simoa and Olink Proteomics. We also discuss important computational methods and statistical algorithms that can maximize the mining of proteomic data with clinical and/or other 'omics data. Various principles and precautions are provided for better utilization of these tools. In summary, the advances in high-throughput proteomics will not only help better understand the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, but also to identify the signature signaling networks of specific diseases. Thus, modern proteomics have a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology, precision medicine, and drug discovery. 
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  2. ABSTRACT Although Wnt signaling is clearly important for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis, the relevance of various sources of Wnt ligands themselves remains incompletely understood. Blocking the release of Wnt in distinct stromal cell types suggests obligatory functions of several stromal cell sources and yields different observations. The physiological contribution of epithelial Wnt to tissue homeostasis remains unclear. We show here that blocking epithelial Wnts affects colonic Reg4+ epithelial cell differentiation and impairs colonic epithelial regeneration after injury in mice. Single-cell RNA analysis of intestinal stroma showed that the majority of Wnt-producing cells were contained in transgelin (Tagln+) and smooth muscle actin α2 (Acta2+) expressing populations. We genetically attenuated Wnt production from these stromal cells using Tagln-Cre and Acta2-CreER drivers, and found that blockage of Wnt release from either epithelium or Tagln+ and Acta2+ stromal cells impaired colonic epithelial healing after chemical-induced injury. Aggregated blockage of Wnt release from both epithelium and Tagln+ or Acta2+ stromal cells drastically diminished epithelial repair, increasing morbidity and mortality. These results from two uncharacterized stromal populations suggested that colonic recovery from colitis-like injury depends on multiple Wnt-producing sources. 
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    Paneth cells are the primary source of C-type lysozyme, a b-1,4-N-acetylmuramoylhydrolase that enzymatically processes bacterial cell walls. Paneth cells are normally present in human cecum and ascending colon, but are rarely found in descending colon and rectum; Paneth cell metaplasia in this region and aberrant lysozyme production are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathology. Here, we examined the impact of aberrant lysozyme production in colonic inflammation. Targeted disruption of Paneth cell lysozyme (Lyz1) protected mice from experimental colitis. Lyz1-deficiency diminished intestinal immune responses to bacterial molecular patterns and resulted in the expansion of lysozyme-sensitive mucolytic bacteria, including Ruminococcus gnavus, a Crohn’s disease-associated pathobiont. Ectopic lysozyme production in colonic epithelium suppressed lysozyme-sensitive bacteria and exacerbated colitis. Transfer of R. gnavus into Lyz1/ hosts elicited a type 2 immune response, causing epithelial reprograming and enhanced anti-colitogenic capacity. In contrast, in lysozyme-intact hosts, processed R. gnavus drove pro-inflammatory responses. Thus, Paneth cell lysozyme balances intestinal anti- and pro-inflammatory responses, with implications for IBD. 
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  5. Abstract

    Paneth cells (PCs), a specialized secretory cell type in the small intestine, are increasingly recognized as having an essential role in host responses to microbiome and environmental stresses. Whether and how commensal and pathogenic microbes modify PC composition to modulate inflammation remain unclear. Using newly developed PC‐reporter mice under conventional and gnotobiotic conditions, we determined PC transcriptomic heterogeneity in response to commensal and invasive microbes at single cell level. Infection expands the pool of CD74+PCs, whose number correlates with auto or allogeneic inflammatory disease progressions in mice. Similar correlation was found in human inflammatory disease tissues. Infection‐stimulated cytokines increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of a PC‐specific mucosal pentraxin (Mptx2) in activated PCs. A PC‐specific ablation ofMyD88reduced CD74+PC population, thus ameliorating pathogen‐induced systemic disease. A similar phenotype was also observed in mice lacking Mptx2. Thus, infection stimulates expansion of a PC subset that influences disease progression.

     
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