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  1. Solving Maxwell's equations numerically to map electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of nanostructured metal surfaces can be a daunting task when studying non-periodic, extended patterns. However, for many nanophotonic applications such as sensing or photovoltaics it is often important to have an accurate description of the actual, experimental spatial field distributions near device surfaces. In this article, we show that the complex light intensity patterns formed by closely-spaced multiple apertures in a metal film can be faithfully mapped with sub-wavelength resolution, from near-field to far-field, in the form of a 3D solid replica of isointensity surfaces. The permittivity of the metal film plays a role in shaping of the isointensity surfaces, over the entire examined spatial range, which is captured by simulations and confirmed experimentally. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 28, 2024
  2. Federated learning (FL) has attracted increasing attention as a promising technique to drive a vast number of edge devices with artificial intelligence. However, it is very challenging to guarantee the efficiency of a FL system in practice due to the heterogeneous computation resources on different devices. To improve the efficiency of FL systems in the real world, asynchronous FL (AFL) and semi-asynchronous FL (SAFL) methods are proposed such that the server does not need to wait for stragglers. However, existing AFL and SAFL systems suffer from poor accuracy and low efficiency in realistic settings where the data is non-IID distributed across devices and the on-device resources are extremely heterogeneous. In this work, we propose FedSEA - a semi-asynchronous FL framework for extremely heterogeneous devices. We theoretically disclose that the unbalanced aggregation frequency is a root cause of accuracy drop in SAFL. Based on this analysis, we design a training configuration scheduler to balance the aggregation frequency of devices such that the accuracy can be improved. To improve the efficiency of the system in realistic settings where the devices have dynamic on-device resource availability, we design a scheduler that can efficiently predict the arriving time of local updates from devices and adjust the synchronization time point according to the devices' predicted arriving time. We also consider the extremely heterogeneous settings where there exist extremely lagging devices that take hundreds of times as long as the training time of the other devices. In the real world, there might be even some extreme stragglers which are not capable of training the global model. To enable these devices to join in training without impairing the systematic efficiency, Fed-SEA enables these extreme stragglers to conduct local training on much smaller models. Our experiments show that compared with status quo approaches, FedSEA improves the inference accuracy by 44.34% and reduces the systematic time cost and local training time cost by 87.02× and 792.9×. FedSEA also reduces the energy consumption of the devices with extremely limited resources by 752.9×. 
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