skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Zhang, Qinghong"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to diagnose mesoscale factors responsible for the formation and development of an extreme rainstorm that occurred on 20 July 2021 in Zhengzhou, China. The rainstorm produced 201.9 mm of rainfall in 1 h, breaking the record of mainland China for 1-h rainfall accumulation in the past 73 years. Using 2-km continuously cycled analyses with 6-min updates that were produced by assimilating observations from radar and dense surface networks with a four-dimensional variational (4DVar) data assimilation system, we illustrate that the modification of environmental easterlies by three mesoscale disturbances played a critical role in the development of the rainstorm. Among the three systems, a mesobeta-scale low pressure system (mesolow) that developed from an inverted trough southwest of Zhengzhou was key to the formation and intensification of the rainstorm. We show that the rainstorm formed via sequential merging of three convective cells, which initiated along the convergence bands in the mesolow. Further, we present evidence to suggest that the mesolow and two terrain-influenced flows near the Taihang Mountains north of Zhengzhou, including a barrier jet and a downslope flow, contributed to the local intensification of the rainstorm and the intense 1-h rainfall. The three mesoscale features coexisted near Zhengzhou in the several hours before the extreme 1-h rainfall and enhanced local wind convergence and moisture transport synergistically. Our analysis also indicated that the strong midlevel south/southwesterly winds from the mesolow along with the gravity-current-modified low-level northeasterly barrier jet enhanced the vertical wind shear, which provided favorable local environment supporting the severe rainstorm.

    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
  3. null (Ed.)
    Globally relevant and locally devastating, hailstorms produce significant societal impacts; despite this, our understanding of hailstorms and our ability to predict them is still limited. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Understanding how severe hailstorms will respond to climate change remains challenging partially due to an incomplete understanding of how different environments produce hail. Leveraging a record of 14,297 global potential severe hailstorms detected by spaceborne precipitation radar, here for the first time, we explore global differences in the five distinct environmental types producing these storms. Two are found over tropical plains and hills with high convective instability, high‐moderate moisture, and low vertical wind shear (VWS). The third type are supercell environments characterized by strong VWS, with moderate instability and moisture, commonly occurring over mid‐latitude plains. Higher latitude plains and elevated terrain reflect the final two, with moderate VWS and low melting height, instability, and moisture. The variety of hailstorm environment types illustrates distinctions in the associated convective mode and embryo type, highlighting that multiple environment types pose challenges for modeling present frequency and anticipating the response of hail to climate change.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Increasing performance demand associated with the short lifetime of consumer electronics has triggered fast growth in electronic waste, leading to serious ecological challenges worldwide. Herein, a robust strategy for judiciously constructing flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that can be conveniently biodegraded is reported. The key to this strategy is to capitalize on meniscus‐assisted solution printing (MASP) as a facile means of yielding cross‐aligned silver nanowires in one‐step, which are subsequently impregnated in a biodegradable elastomeric polyester. Intriguingly, the as‐crafted hybrid biodegradable electrode greatly constrains the solvent evaporation of the perovskite precursor solution, thereby generating fewer nuclei and in turn resulting in the deposition of a large‐grained dense perovskite film that exhibits excellent optoelectronic properties with a power conversion efficiency of 17.51% in PSCs. More importantly, the hybrid biodegradable electrode‐based devices also manifest impressive robustness against mechanical deformation and can be thoroughly biodegraded after use. These results signify the great potential of MASP for controllably assembling aligned conductive nanomaterials for biodegradable electrodes. As such, it represents an important endeavor toward environmentally friendly, multifunctional and flexible electronic, optoelectronic, photonic, and sensory materials and devices.

    more » « less