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  1. Abstract This work focuses on the nature of magnetic anisotropy in 2.5–16 micron thick films of nickel ferrite (NFO) grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The technique, ideal for rapid growth of epitaxial oxide films, was utilized for films on (100) and (110) substrates of magnesium gallate (MGO). The motivation was to investigate the dependence of the growth induced anisotropy field on film thickness since submicron films of NFO were reported to show a very high anisotropy. The films grown at 850–875 C and subsequently annealed at 1000 C were found to be epitaxial, with the out-of-plane lattice constant showingmore »unanticipated decrease with increasing film thickness and the estimated in-plane lattice constant increasing with the film thickness. The uniaxial anisotropy field H σ , estimated from X-ray diffraction data, ranged from 2.8–7.7 kOe with the films on (100) MGO having a higher H σ value than for the films on (110) MGO. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements for in-plane and out-of-plane static magnetic field were utilized to determine both the magnetocrystalline the anisotropy field H 4 and the uniaxial anisotropy field H a . Values of H 4 range from −0.24 to −0.86 kOe. The uniaxial anisotropy field H a was an order of magnitude smaller than H σ and it decreased with increasing film thickness for NFO films on (100) MGO, but H a increased with film thickness for films on (110) MGO substrates. These observations indicate that the origin of the induced anisotropy could be attributed to several factors including (i) strain due to mismatch in the film-substrate lattice constants, (ii) possible variations in the bond lengths and bond angles in NFO during the growth process, and (iii) the strain arising from mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and the substrate due to the high growth and annealing temperatures involved in the LPE technique. The LPE films of NFO on MGO substrates studied in this work are of interest for use in high frequency devices.« less
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  7. Abstract Pyroxenite veins and dikes are commonly observed in the mantle section of ophiolites. Because of their mantle occurrence, these pyroxenites are free from crustal contamination and offer a unique opportunity for studying mantle compositions and melt–rock interaction processes. We conducted an integrated petrological and geochemical study of a suite of composite orthopyroxenite, websterite, and pyroxene-bearing dunite veins from the Xiugugabu ophiolite located on the western segment of Yarlung–Zangbo Suture Zone. The dunite is separated from the host peridotite by a layer of pyroxenite, forming a composite vein system. Systematic variations in major, minor, and trace element compositions in mineralsmore »across the composite veins are observed. Two generations of orthopyroxenes in the pyroxenites are characterized by high Mg#, low TiO2 concentrations, and depleted patterns of incompatible trace elements. Clinopyroxenes in the pyroxenites are characterized by high Mg#, low contents of TiO2 and Na2O, spooned shaped REE patterns, and a negative Zr anomaly. Through major and trace element modeling, we showed that both orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene were in equilibrium with melts with different compositions. This hypothesis is further confirmed by distinct initial Nd and Hf isotope ratios in the two pyroxenes. A model for the formation of composite pyroxenite veins is developed, whereby hydrous and silica-rich melts percolate along the margins of a dunite channel. The orthopyroxenite was formed by the reaction between a hydrous, silica-rich melt and the surrounding peridotite. The websterite is formed by reactive crystallization of a hybrid melt produced by mixing silica-rich melt and the melt formed by remelting of previously depleted peridotite in the deeper part of the mantle column. The extremely enriched Nd–Hf isotope compositions of the pyroxenite veins (εNd = −20.3 to +11.5 and εHf = −13.2 to +25.3, 125 million years ago) can be explained by the addition of ancient, recycled sediments to the mantle source in a supra-subduction setting. Based on the low-Cr# spinel in the Xiugugabu dunites (Cr# = 19–50) and the depleted nature of the parental melt of the Xiugugabu pyroxenites, we deduced that the formation of pyroxenites postdate the formation of the Xiugugabu ophiolite at ~125–130 Ma. Collectively, results from this study have provided support to the hypothesis that the Xiugugabu ophiolite experience a two-stage evolution, i.e., firstly formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting and subsequently modified in a supra subduction zone.« less
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