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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Using archived student data for middle and high school students’ mathematics-focused intelligent tutoring system (ITS) learning collected across a school year, this study explores situational, achievement-goal latent profile membership and the stability of these profiles with respect to student demographics and dispositional achievement goal scores. Over 65% of students changed situational profile membership at some time during the school year. Start-of-year dispositional motivation scores were not related to whether students remained in the same profile across all unit-level measurements. Grade level was predictive of profile stability. Findings from the present study should shed light on how in-the-moment student motivation fluctuates while students are engaged in ITS math learning. Present findings have potential to inform motivation interventions designed for ITS math learning.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  4. Laser cooling is a key ingredient for quantum control of atomic systems in a variety of settings. In divalent atoms, two-stage Doppler cooling is typically used to bring atoms to the uK regime. Here, we implement a pulsed radial cooling scheme using the ultranarrow 1S0-3P0 clock transition in ytterbium to realize sub-recoil temperatures, down to tens of nK. Together with sideband cooling along the one-dimensional lattice axis, we efficiently prepare atoms in shallow lattices at an energy of 6 lattice recoils. Under these conditions key limits on lattice clock accuracy and instability are reduced, opening the door to dramatic improvements. Furthermore, tunneling shifts in the shallow lattice do not compromise clock accuracy at the 10-19 level.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
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  8. Extensive research has been conducted to resolve small-scale microlayer and bubble nucleation and departure processes in flow boiling, building on controlled pool boiling studies. Large-scale two-phase flow structures, such as Taylor bubbles, are known to locally modify transport due to their wakes and varying surrounding liquid film thickness. However, the effect of interaction of such large-scale flow processes with bubble nucleation is not yet well characterized. Wakes may drive premature nucleating bubble departure, or conversely, suppress boiling due to boundary layer quenching, significantly affecting overall heat transfer. To explore such phenomena, a two-phase flow boiling visualization facility is developed to collect simultaneous high-speed visualization and infrared (IR) thermal imaging temperature distribution data. The test cell channel is 420 mm long with a 10 mm × 10 mm internal square-cross section. A transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) coated sapphire window serves as a heater and IR interface for measuring the internal wall temperature. The facility is charged with a low boiling point fluid (HFE7000) to reduce uncertainties from heat loss to the laboratory environment. Vertical saturated flow boiling wake-nucleation interaction experiments are performed for varying liquid volume flow rates (0.5 − 1.5 L min-1, laminar-to-turbulent Re) and heat fluxes (0more »− 100 kW m-2). Discrete vapor slugs are injected to explore interactions with nucleate boiling processes. By measuring film heater power, surface temperature distributions, and pressures, local instantaneous heat transfer coefficients (HTC) can be obtained. Results will be applied to assess simulations at matched conditions for void fraction, and size statistics of flow structures.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  10. Comparisons of high-accuracy optical atomic clocks \cite{Ludlow2015} are essential for precision tests of fundamental physics \cite{Safronova2018}, relativistic geodesy \cite{McGrew2018, Grotti2018, Delva2019}, and the anticipated redefinition of the SI second \cite{Riehle2018}. The scientific reach of these applications is restricted by the statistical precision of interspecies comparison measurements. The instability of individual clocks is limited by the finite coherence time of the optical local oscillator (OLO), which bounds the maximum atomic interrogation time. In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate differential spectroscopy \cite{Hume2016}, a comparison protocol that enables interrogating beyond the OLO coherence time. By phase-coherently linking a zero-dead-time (ZDT) \cite{Schioppo2017} Yb optical lattice clock with an Al+ single-ion clock via an optical frequency comb and performing synchronised Ramsey spectroscopy, we show an improvement in comparison instability relative to our previous result \cite{network2020frequency} of nearly an order of magnitude. To our knowledge, this result represents the most stable interspecies clock comparison to date.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023