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  1. Abstract

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) are devastating natural disasters. Analyzing four decades of global TC data, here we find that among all global TC-active basins, the South China Sea (SCS) stands out as particularly difficult ocean for TCs to intensify, despite favorable atmosphere and ocean conditions. Over the SCS, TC intensification rate and its probability for a rapid intensification (intensification by ≥ 15.4 m s−1day−1) are only 1/2 and 1/3, respectively, of those for the rest of the world ocean. Originating from complex interplays between astronomic tides and the SCS topography, gigantic ocean internal tides interact with TC-generated oceanic near-inertial waves and induce a strong ocean cooling effect, suppressing the TC intensification. Inclusion of this interaction between internal tides and TC in operational weather prediction systems is expected to improve forecast of TC intensity in the SCS and in other regions where strong internal tides are present.

     
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  2. Abstract Understanding treatment heterogeneity is essential to the development of precision medicine, which seeks to tailor medical treatments to subgroups of patients with similar characteristics. One of the challenges of achieving this goal is that we usually do not have a priori knowledge of the grouping information of patients with respect to treatment effect. To address this problem, we consider a heterogeneous regression model which allows the coefficients for treatment variables to be subject-dependent with unknown grouping information. We develop a concave fusion penalized method for estimating the grouping structure and the subgroup-specific treatment effects, and derive an alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm for its implementation. We also study the theoretical properties of the proposed method and show that under suitable conditions there exists a local minimizer that equals the oracle least squares estimator based on a priori knowledge of the true grouping information with high probability. This provides theoretical support for making statistical inference about the subgroup-specific treatment effects using the proposed method. The proposed method is illustrated in simulation studies and illustrated with real data from an AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study. 
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  3. We report a facile route to the synthesis of Ag@Au–Pt trimetallic nanocubes in which the Ag, Au, and Pt atoms are exposed at the corners, side faces, and edges, respectively. Our success relies on the use of Ag@Au nanocubes, with Ag 2 O patches at the corners and Au on the side faces and edges, as seeds for the site-selective deposition of Pt on the edges only in a reaction system containing ascorbic acid (H 2 Asc) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). At an initial pH of 3.2, H 2 Asc can dissolve the Ag 2 O patches, exposing the Ag atoms at the corners of a nanocube. Upon the injection of the H 2 PtCl 6 precursor, the Pt atoms derived from the reduction by both H 2 Asc and Ag are preferentially deposited on the edges, leading to the formation of Ag@Au–Pt trimetallic nanocubes. We demonstrate the use of 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanide as a molecular probe to confirm and monitor the deposition of Pt atoms on the edges of nanocubes through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We further explore the use of these bifunctional trimetallic nanoparticles with integrated plasmonic and catalytic properties for in situ SERS monitoring the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol by NaBH 4 . Upon the removal of Ag via H 2 O 2 etching, the Ag@Au–Pt nanocubes evolve into trimetallic nanoboxes with a wall thickness of about 2 nm and well-defined openings at the corners. The trimetallic nanoboxes embrace plasmon resonance peaks in the near-infrared region with potential in biomedical applications. 
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