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  1. Li, Rong (Ed.)
    Recent research has elucidated mechanochemical pathways of single cell polarization, but much less is known about collective motility initiation in adhesive cell groups. We used galvanotactic assays of zebrafish keratocyte cell groups, pharmacological perturbations, electric field switches, particle imaging velocimetry, and cell tracking to show that large cell groups initiate motility in minutes toward the cathode. Interestingly, while PI3K-inhibited single cells are biased toward the anode, inhibiting PI3K does not affect the cathode-directed cell group migration. We observed that control groups had the fastest cathode-migrating cell at the front, while the front cells in PI3K-inhibited groups were the slowest. Both control and PI3K-inhibited groups rapidly repolarized when the electric field direction was reversed, and the group migration continued after the electric field was switched off. Inhibiting myosin disrupted the cohesiveness of keratocyte groups and abolished the collective directionality and ability to switch direction when the electric field is reversed. Our data are consistent with a model according to which cells in the group sense the electric field individually and mechanical integration of the cells results in coherent group motility. 
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  2. Abstract Lacustrine dolomite nucleation commonly occurs in modern and Neogene evaporitic alkaline lakes. As a result, ancient lacustrine microcrystalline dolomite has been conventionally interpreted to be formed in evaporitic environments. This study, however, suggests a non‐evaporitic origin of dolomite precipitated in a volcanic–hydrothermal lake, where hydrothermal and volcanic processes interacted. The dolomite occurs in lacustrine fine‐grained sedimentary rocks in the middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Santanghu intracontinental rift basin, north‐west China. Dolostones are composed mainly of nano‐sized to micron‐sized dolomite with a euhedral to subhedral shape and a low degree of cation ordering, and are interlaminated and intercalated with tuffaceous shale. Non‐dolomite minerals, including quartz, alkaline feldspars, smectite and magnesite mix with the dolomite in various proportions. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.704528 to 0.705372, average = 0.705004) and δ 26 Mg values (−0.89 to −0.24‰, average = −0.55‰) of dolostones are similar to those of mantle rocks, indicating that the precipitates mainly originated from fluids that migrated upward from the mantle and were subject to water–rock reactions at a great depth. The δ 18 O values (−3.1 to −22.7‰, average = −14.0‰) of the dolostones indicate hydrothermal influence. The trace and rare earth element concentrations suggest a saline, anoxic and volcanic–hydrothermally‐influenced subaqueous environment. In this subaqueous environment of Lucaogou lake, locally high temperatures and a supply of abundant Mg 2+ from a deep source induced by volcanic–hydrothermal activity formed favourable chemical conditions for direct precipitation of primary dolomite. This study's findings deepen the understanding of the origin and processes of lacustrine primary dolomite formation and provide an alternative possibility for environmental interpretations of ancient dolostones. 
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  3. Ruane, Sara (Ed.)
    Abstract Some phylogenetic problems remain unresolved even when large amounts of sequence data are analyzed and methods that accommodate processes such as incomplete lineage sorting are employed. In addition to investigating biological sources of phylogenetic incongruence, it is also important to reduce noise in the phylogenomic dataset by using appropriate filtering approach that addresses gene tree estimation errors. We present the results of a case study in manakins, focusing on the very difficult clade comprising the genera Antilophia and Chiroxiphia. Previous studies suggest that Antilophia is nested within Chiroxiphia, though relationships among Antilophia+Chiroxiphia species have been highly unstable. We extracted more than 11,000 loci (ultra-conserved elements and introns) from whole genomes and conducted analyses using concatenation and multispecies coalescent methods. Topologies resulting from analyses using all loci differed depending on the data type and analytical method, with 2 clades (Antilophia+Chiroxiphia and Manacus+Pipra+Machaeopterus) in the manakin tree showing incongruent results. We hypothesized that gene trees that conflicted with a long coalescent branch (e.g., the branch uniting Antilophia+Chiroxiphia) might be enriched for cases of gene tree estimation error, so we conducted analyses that either constrained those gene trees to include monophyly of Antilophia+Chiroxiphia or excluded these loci. While constraining trees reduced some incongruence, excluding the trees led to completely congruent species trees, regardless of the data type or model of sequence evolution used. We found that a suite of gene metrics (most importantly the number of informative sites and likelihood of intralocus recombination) collectively explained the loci that resulted in non-monophyly of Antilophia+Chiroxiphia. We also found evidence for introgression that may have contributed to the discordant topologies we observe in Antilophia+Chiroxiphia and led to deviations from expectations given the multispecies coalescent model. Our study highlights the importance of identifying factors that can obscure phylogenetic signal when dealing with recalcitrant phylogenetic problems, such as gene tree estimation error, incomplete lineage sorting, and reticulation events. [Birds; c-gene; data type; gene estimation error; model fit; multispecies coalescent; phylogenomics; reticulation] 
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  4. Abstract Biodiversity research has advanced by testing expectations of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses through the linking of large-scale genetic, distributional, and trait datasets. The rise of molecular systematics over the past 30 years has resulted in a wealth of DNA sequences from around the globe. Yet, advances in molecular systematics also have created taxonomic instability, as new estimates of evolutionary relationships and interpretations of species limits have required widespread scientific name changes. Taxonomic instability, colloquially “splits, lumps, and shuffles,” presents logistical challenges to large-scale biodiversity research because (1) the same species or sets of populations may be listed under different names in different data sources, or (2) the same name may apply to different sets of populations representing different taxonomic concepts. Consequently, distributional and trait data are often difficult to link directly to primary DNA sequence data without extensive and time-consuming curation. Here, we present RANT: Reconciliation of Avian NCBI Taxonomy. RANT applies taxonomic reconciliation to standardize avian taxon names in use in NCBI GenBank, a primary source of genetic data, to a widely used and regularly updated avian taxonomy: eBird/Clements. Of 14,341 avian species/subspecies names in GenBank, 11,031 directly matched an eBird/Clements; these link to more than 6 million nucleotide sequences. For the remaining unmatched avian names in GenBank, we used Avibase’s system of taxonomic concepts, taxonomic descriptions in Cornell’s Birds of the World, and DNA sequence metadata to identify corresponding eBird/Clements names. Reconciled names linked to more than 600,000 nucleotide sequences, ~9% of all avian sequences on GenBank. Nearly 10% of eBird/Clements names had nucleotide sequences listed under 2 or more GenBank names. Our taxonomic reconciliation is a first step towards rigorous and open-source curation of avian GenBank sequences and is available at GitHub, where it can be updated to correspond to future annual eBird/Clements taxonomic updates. 
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  5. Wound healing is one of the most complex processes in the human body, supported by many cellular events that are tightly coordinated to repair the wound efficiently. Chronic wounds have potentially life-threatening consequences. Traditional wound dressings come in direct contact with wounds to help them heal and avoid further complications. However, traditional wound dressings have some limitations. These dressings do not provide real-time information on wound conditions, leading clinicians to miss the best time for adjusting treatment. Moreover, the current diagnosis of wounds is relatively subjective. Wearable electronics have become a unique platform to potentially monitor wound conditions in a continuous manner accurately and even to serve as accelerated healing vehicles. In this review, we briefly discuss the wound status with some objective parameters/biomarkers influencing wound healing, followed by the presentation of various novel wearable devices used for monitoring wounds and accelerating wound healing. We further summarize the associated device working principles. This review concludes by highlighting some major challenges in wearable devices toward wound healing that need to be addressed by the research community. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
  7. Abstract

    The need to develop wearable devices for personal health monitoring, diagnostics, and therapy has inspired the production of innovative on‐demand, customizable technologies. Several of these technologies enable printing of raw electronic materials directly onto biological organs and tissues. However, few of them have been thoroughly investigated for biocompatibility of the raw materials on the cellular, tissue, and organ levels or with different cell types. In addition, highly accurate multiday in vivo monitoring using such on‐demand, in situ fabricated devices has yet to be done. Presented herein is the first fully biocompatible, on‐skin fabricated electronics for multiple cell types and tissues that can capture electrophysiological signals with high fidelity. While also demonstrating improved mechanical and electrical properties, the drawn‐on‐skin ink retains its properties under various writing conditions, which minimizes the variation in electrical performance. Furthermore, the drawn‐on‐skin ink shows excellent biocompatibility with cardiomyocytes, neurons, mice skin tissue, and human skin. The high signal‐to‐noise ratios of the electrophysiological signals recorded with the DoS sensor over multiple days demonstrate its potential for personalized, long‐term, and accurate electrophysiological health monitoring.

     
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