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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. The NUMA architecture accommodates the hardware trend of an increasing number of CPU cores. It requires the coop- eration of memory allocators to achieve good performance for multithreaded applications. Unfortunately, existing allo- cators do not support NUMA architecture well. This paper presents a novel memory allocator – NUMAlloc , that is de- signed for the NUMA architecture. NUMAlloc is centered on a binding-based memory management. On top of it, NUMAl- loc proposes an “origin-aware memory management” to ensure the locality of memory allocations and deallocations, as well as a method called “incremental sharing” to balance the performance benefits and memory overhead of using transparent huge pages. According to our extensive evalua- tion, NUMAlloc hasthebestperformanceamongallevaluated allocators, running 15.7% faster than the second-best allo- cator (mimalloc), and 20.9% faster than the default Linux allocator with reasonable memory overhead. NUMAlloc is also scalable to 128 threads and is ready for deployment. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 18, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Across three pre‐registered studies (n = 221 4–9‐year olds, 51% female; 218 parents, 80% female; working‐ and middle‐class backgrounds; data collected during 2019–2021) conducted in the United States (Studies 1–2; 74% White) and China (Study 3; 100% Asian), we document the emergence of a preference for “strivers.” Beginning at age 7, strivers (who work really hard) were favored over naturals (who are really smart) in both cultures (R2ranging .03–.11). We explored several lay beliefs surrounding this preference. Beliefs about outcomes and the controllability of effort predicted the striver preference: Children who expected strivers to be more successful than naturals and believed effort was more controllable than talent preferred strivers more. Implications of the striver preference in education and beyond are discussed.

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  5. Abstract

    Unlike PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) in other species that mostly target transposable elements (TEs), >80% of piRNAs in adult mammalian testes lack obvious targets. However, mammalian piRNA sequences and piRNA-producing loci evolve more rapidly than the rest of the genome for unknown reasons. Here, through comparative studies of chickens, ducks, mice, and humans, as well as long-read nanopore sequencing on diverse chicken breeds, we find that piRNA loci across amniotes experience: (1) a high local mutation rate of structural variations (SVs, mutations ≥ 50 bp in size); (2) positive selection to suppress young and actively mobilizing TEs commencing at the pachytene stage of meiosis during germ cell development; and (3) negative selection to purge deleterious SV hotspots. Our results indicate that genetic instability at pachytene piRNA loci, while producing certain pathogenic SVs, also protects genome integrity against TE mobilization by driving the formation of rapid-evolving piRNA sequences.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  6. Previous studies of tomato rootstock effects on fruit quality have yielded mixed results, and few attempts have been made to systematically examine the association between rootstock characteristics and tomato fruit quality. In this study, grape tomato (‘BHN 1022’) and beefsteak tomato (‘Skyway’) were grafted onto four rootstocks [‘Estamino’ (vigorous and “generative”), ‘DR0141TX’ (vigorous and “vegetative”), ‘RST-04-106-T’ (uncharacterized), and ‘SHIELD RZ F1 (61–802)’ (mid-vigor, uncharacterized)] and compared to non-grafted scion controls for two growing seasons (Spring and Fall in Florida) in organically managed high tunnels. In both seasons and for both scions, the two vigorous rootstocks, regardless of their designation as “vegetative” (‘DR0141TX’) or “generative” (‘Estamino’), exhibited negative impacts on dry matter content, soluble solids content (SSC), SSC/titratable acidity (TA), lycopene, and ascorbic acid contents. Similar effects on fruit dry matter content and SSC were also observed with the ‘RST-04-106-T’ rootstock, although little to no change was seen with grafting onto ‘SHIELD RZ F1 (61–802)’. Further studies are needed to elucidate the impact of rootstock vigor on tomato volatile profiles and consumer sensory acceptability in order to better determine whether any of the documented effects are of practical importance. On the other hand, the evident effects of scion cultivar and planting season on fruit quality were observed in most of the measurements. The scion by rootstock interaction affected fruit length, firmness, pH, and total phenolic content, while the planting season by rootstock interaction impacted fruit firmness, pH, total antioxidant capacity, and ascorbic acid and lycopene contents. The multivariate separation pattern of planting season, scion, and rootstock treatments as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis further indicated that the influence of scion cultivar and planting season on tomato fruit quality could be much more pronounced than the rootstock effects. The fruit color ( C * and H °), length and width, SSC, pH, total antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, and lycopene contents were the main attributes distinguishing different scion-planting season groups. 
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  7. The appropriate selection of rootstock-scion combinations to improve yield and fully realize grafting benefits requires an in-depth understanding of rootstock-scion synergy. Toward this end, we grafted two determinate-type scions [grape tomato (‘BHN 1022') and beefsteak tomato (‘Skyway')] onto four rootstocks with different characteristics to examine plant growth, yield performance, biomass production, and fruit mineral nutrient composition. The study was conducted during two growing seasons (spring and fall plantings in Florida) under organic production in high tunnels with the non-grafted scions as controls. Rootstocks had previously been designated as either “generative” (‘Estamino') or “vegetative” (‘DR0141TX') by some commercial suppliers or had not been characterized [‘RST-04-106-T' and ‘SHIELD RZ F1 (61-802)']. Also, ‘Estamino', ‘DR0141TX', and ‘RST-04-106-T' had been described as more vigorous than ‘SHIELD RZ F1 (61-802)'. In both planting seasons (with low levels of soilborne disease pressure), the “vegetative” and “generative” rootstocks increased marketable and total fruit yields for both scions except for the beefsteak tomato grafted with the “vegetative” rootstock in fall planting. Positive effects of ‘RST-04-106-T' on fruit yield varied with scions and planting seasons, and were most manifested when grafted with the beefsteak tomato scion in fall planting. ‘SHIELD RZ F1 (61-802)' led to similar yields as the non-grafted controls except for grafting with the grape tomato scion in fall planting. For vegetative and fruit biomass, both the “vegetative” and “generative” rootstocks had positive impacts except for the beefsteak tomato in fall planting. For fruit mineral composition, the “vegetative” and “generative” rootstocks, both highly vigorous, consistently elevated fruit P, K, Ca, Zn, and Fe contents on a dry weight basis, whereas the other rootstocks did not. Overall, although the more vigorous rootstocks enhanced tomato plant productivity and fruit minerals, the evidence presented here does not support the suggestion that the so-called “vegetative” and “generative” rootstocks have different impacts on tomato scion yield, biomass production, or fruit mineral contents. More studies with different production systems and environmental conditions as well as contrasting scion genotypes are needed to further categorize the impacts of rootstocks with different vigor and other characteristics on plant biomass production and their implications on fruit yield development. 
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