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  1. Abstract Background

    Brain tissue-derived extracellular vesicles (bdEVs) act locally in the central nervous system (CNS) and may indicate molecular mechanisms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) CNS pathology. Using brain homogenate (BH) and bdEVs from a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of HIV disease, we identified RNA networks in SIV infection and neuroinflammation.

    Methods

    Postmortem occipital cortex samples were obtained from uninfected controls and SIV-infected subjects (acute and chronic phases with or without CNS pathology [SIV encephalitis]). bdEVs were separated and characterized per international consensus guidelines. RNAs from bdEVs and BH were sequenced and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-amplified to detect levels of small RNAs (sRNAs, including microRNAs [miRNAs]) and longer RNAs including messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs).

    Results

    Dysregulated RNAs in BH and bdEVs were identified in acute and chronic infection with pathology groups, including mRNAs, miRNAs, and circRNAs. Most dysregulated mRNAs in bdEVs reflected dysregulation in source BH. These mRNAs are disproportionately involved in inflammation and immune responses. Based on target prediction, several circRNAs that were differentially abundant in source tissue might be responsible for specific differences in sRNA levels in bdEVs during SIV infection.

    Conclusions

    RNA profiling of bdEVs and source tissues reveals potential regulatory networks in SIV infection and SIV-related CNS pathology.

     
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  2. The crystal structure of the light-gated anion channel Gt ACR1 reported in our previous Research Article (Li et al., 2019) revealed a continuous tunnel traversing the protein from extracellular to intracellular pores. We proposed the tunnel as the conductance channel closed by three constrictions: C1 in the extracellular half, mid-membrane C2 containing the photoactive site, and C3 on the cytoplasmic side. Reported here, the crystal structure of bromide-bound Gt ACR1 reveals structural changes that relax the C1 and C3 constrictions, including a novel salt-bridge switch mechanism involving C1 and the photoactive site. These findings indicate that substrate binding induces a transition from an inactivated state to a pre-activated state in the dark that facilitates channel opening by reducing free energy in the tunnel constrictions. The results provide direct evidence that the tunnel is the closed form of the channel of Gt ACR1 and shed light on the light-gated channel activation mechanism. 
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  3. The collective intelligence of online communities often depends on implicit forms of coordination, given the fluidity of membership and the lack of traditional hierarchies and associated incentive structures. This coordination drives knowledge production. Studying temporal dynamics may help elucidate how coordination happens. Specifically, the rate of interaction with an artifact such as a Wikipedia page can function as a signal that affects future interactions. Many activities can be characterized as bursty, meaning activity is not evenly spread or random, but is instead concentrated. This study analyzes 3,260 Wikipedia articles and shows that the coordination pattern in the Wikipedia community is mostly bursty. More importantly, the extent of burstiness affects article quality. This work highlights the important role temporal dynamics can play in the coordination process in online communities, and how it can affect the quality of knowledge production. 
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