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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 21, 2023
  2. It has been shown that intraoperative stress can have a negative effect on surgeon surgical skills during laparoscopic procedures. For novice surgeons, stressful conditions can lead to significantly higher velocity, acceleration, and jerk of the surgical instrument tips, resulting in faster but less smooth movements. However, it is still not clear which of these kinematic features (velocity, acceleration, or jerk) is the best marker for identifying the normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, in order to find the most significant kinematic feature that is affected by intraoperative stress, we implemented a spatial attention-based Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) classifier. In a prior IRB approved experiment, we collected data from medical students performing an extended peg transfer task who were randomized into a control group and a group performing the task under external psychological stresses. In our prior work, we obtained “representative” normal or stressed movements from this dataset using kinematic data as the input. In this study, a spatial attention mechanism is used to describe the contribution of each kinematic feature to the classification of normal/stressed movements. We tested our classifier under Leave-One-User-Out (LOUO) cross-validation, and the classifier reached an overall accuracy of 77.11% for classifying “representative” normal and stressed movements usingmore »kinematic features as the input. More importantly, we also studied the spatial attention extracted from the proposed classifier. Velocity and acceleration on both sides had significantly higher attention for classifying a normal movement ([Formula: see text]); Velocity ([Formula: see text]) and jerk ([Formula: see text]) on nondominant hand had significant higher attention for classifying a stressed movement, and it is worthy noting that the attention of jerk on nondominant hand side had the largest increment when moving from describing normal movements to stressed movements ([Formula: see text]). In general, we found that the jerk on nondominant hand side can be used for characterizing the stressed movements for novice surgeons more effectively.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. A near-field multistage radiative thermal rectifier is proposed based on two different phase-change materials, which can achieve multistage thermal rectification with different rectification ratios. The phase-change materials vanadium dioxide (VO2) and Ge2Sb2Te5(GST), with different metal-insulator transition temperatures, are utilized within the active terminal of thermal rectifier. Four types of active terminal structures, including multi-film and composite nanograting structures, are introduced to explore to multistage thermal rectification. Our calculations find that the active terminal composed of a one-dimensional VO2grating atop a GST thin film is the most suitable for multistage thermal rectification due to its realization of well-distributed and flexible thermal rectification. Furthermore, it is found that the passive terminal temperature of thermal rectifier can significantly affect the multistage radiative thermal rectification by modifying the rectification ratio and adjusting the stage number of multistage thermal rectification. This work sheds light on the role of different phase-change materials within the design of promising radiative thermal rectifiers boasting multistage thermal rectification.

  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  6. Abstract

    Water evaporation systems with solar energy as the primary driving energy have received extensive attention in recent years. This work studies the preparation method and performance of hydrogel evaporators using chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a framework and carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) as the photothermal material. The evaporation rate of CPC (chitosan/PVA and CNPs) hydrogel obtained reaches 2.28 kg m−2 h−1. Simultaneously, a three-dimensional structure is designed based on the two-dimensional double-layer evaporation system in this study. An evaporator with a tiny-pool structure and a hydrogel with a dome-arrayed structure is designed. These two structures achieve highly efficient evaporation rates of 2.28 kg m−2 h−1and 3.80 kg m−2 h−1, respectively. These optimized designs improve the evaporation rate of the overall system by ~ 66.7%. The developed evaporation devices provide a promising pathway for developing the double-layer evaporators, which promote the new development of water purification with a solar-driven evaporation system.

  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 21, 2023
  9. Abstract

    Water availability influences all aspects of plant growth and development; however, most studies of plant responses to drought have focused on vegetative organs, notably roots and leaves. Far less is known about the molecular bases of drought acclimation responses in fruits, which are complex organs with distinct tissue types. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the molecular mechanisms governing fruit development under drought, we profiled the transcriptomes of a spectrum of fruit tissues from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), spanning early growth through ripening and collected from plants grown under varying intensities of water stress. In addition, we compared transcriptional changes in fruit with those in leaves to highlight different and conserved transcriptome signatures in vegetative and reproductive organs. We observed extensive and diverse genetic reprogramming in different fruit tissues and leaves, each associated with a unique response to drought acclimation. These included major transcriptional shifts in the placenta of growing fruit and in the seeds of ripe fruit related to cell growth and epigenetic regulation, respectively. Changes in metabolic and hormonal pathways, such as those related to starch, carotenoids, jasmonic acid, and ethylene metabolism, were associated with distinct fruit tissues and developmental stages. Gene coexpression network analysis provided furthermore »insights into the tissue-specific regulation of distinct responses to water stress. Our data highlight the spatiotemporal specificity of drought responses in tomato fruit and indicate known and unrevealed molecular regulatory mechanisms involved in drought acclimation, during both vegetative and reproductive stages of development.

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