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  1. Optical photons are powerful carriers of quantum information, which can be delivered in free space by satellites or in fibers on the ground over long distances. Entanglement of quantum states over long distances can empower quantum computing, quantum communications, and quantum sensing. Quantum optical memories are devices designed to store quantum information in the form of stationary excitations, such as atomic coherence, and are capable of coherently mapping these excitations to flying qubits. Quantum memories can effectively store and manipulate quantum states, making them indispensable elements in future long-distance quantum networks. Over the past two decades, quantum optical memories with high fidelities, high efficiencies, long storage times, and promising multiplexing capabilities have been developed, especially at the single-photon level. In this review, we introduce the working principles of commonly used quantum memory protocols and summarize the recent advances in quantum memory demonstrations. We also offer a vision for future quantum optical memory devices that may enable entanglement distribution over long distances.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Quantum information processing and quantum sensing is a central topic for researchers who are part of the Materials Research Society and the Quantum Staging Group is providing leadership and guidance in this context. We convened a workshop before the 2022 MRS Spring Meeting and covered four topics to explore challenges that need to be addressed to further promote and accelerate the development of materials with applications in quantum technologies. This article captures the discussions at this workshop and refers to the pertinent literature.

    Graphical abstract 
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  4. Abstract 167 Er 3+ doped solids are a promising platform for quantum technology due to erbium’s telecom C-band optical transition and its long hyperfine coherence times. We experimentally study the spin Hamiltonian and dynamics of 167 Er 3+ spins in Y 2 O 3 using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The anisotropic electron Zeeman, hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole matrices are fitted using data obtained by X-band (9.5 GHz) EPR spectroscopy. We perform pulsed EPR spectroscopy to measure spin relaxation time T 1 and coherence time T 2 for the 3 principal axes of an anisotropic g tensor. Long electronic spin coherence time up to 24.4 μ s is measured for lowest g transition at 4 K, exceeding previously reported values at much lower temperatures. Measurements of decoherence mechanism indicates T 2 limited by spectral diffusion and instantaneous diffusion. Long spin coherence times, along with a strong anisotropic hyperfine interaction makes 167 Er 3+ :Y 2 O 3 a rich system and an excellent candidate for spin-based quantum technologies. 
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  5. We perform correlated optical-spin coherence spectroscopy on epitaxial rare-earth qubits in an oxide thin film. Single Er3+ions are optically addressed and used to probe coupling to two-level-systems as a simultaneous optical-spin decoherence mechanism.

     
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Rare-earth dopants are arguably one of the most studied optical centers in solids, with applications spanning from laser optoelectronics, biosensing, lighting to displays. Nevertheless, harnessing rare-earth dopants’ extraordinary coherence properties for quantum information technologies is a relatively new endeavor, and has been rapidly advancing in recent years. Leveraging the state-of-the-art photonic technologies, on-chip rare-earth quantum devices functioning as quantum memories, single photon sources and transducers have emerged, often with potential performances unrivaled by other solid-state quantum technologies. These existing quantum devices, however, nearly exclusively rely on macroscopic bulk materials as substrates, which may limit future scalability and functionalities of such quantum systems. Thus, the development of new platforms beyond single crystal bulk materials has become an interesting approach. In this review article, we summarize the latest progress towards nanoscale, low-dimensional rare-earth doped materials for enabling next generation rare-earth quantum devices. Different platforms with a variety of synthesis methods are surveyed. Their key metrics measured to date are presented and compared. Special attention is placed on the connection between the topology of each platform to its target device applications. Lastly, an outlook for near term prospects of these platforms are given, with a hope to spur broader interests in rare-earth doped materials as a promising candidate for quantum information technologies. 
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  7. Abstract

    Qudit entanglement is an indispensable resource for quantum information processing since increasing dimensionality provides a pathway to higher capacity and increased noise resilience in quantum communications, and cluster-state quantum computations. In continuous-variable time–frequency entanglement, encoding multiple qubits per photon is only limited by the frequency correlation bandwidth and detection timing jitter. Here, we focus on the discrete-variable time–frequency entanglement in a biphoton frequency comb (BFC), generating by filtering the signal and idler outputs with a fiber Fabry–Pérot cavity with 45.32 GHz free-spectral range (FSR) and 1.56 GHz full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) from a continuous-wave (cw)-pumped type-II spontaneous parametric downconverter (SPDC). We generate a BFC whose time-binned/frequency-binned Hilbert space dimensionality is at least 324, based on the assumption of a pure state. Such BFC’s dimensionality doubles up to 648, after combining with its post-selected polarization entanglement, indicating a potential 6.28 bits/photon classical-information capacity. The BFC exhibits recurring Hong–Ou–Mandel (HOM) dips over 61 time bins with a maximum visibility of 98.4% without correction for accidental coincidences. In a post-selected measurement, it violates the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality for polarization entanglement by up to 18.5 standard deviations with anS-parameter of up to 2.771. It has Franson interference recurrences in 16 time bins with a maximum visibility of 96.1% without correction for accidental coincidences. From the zeroth- to the third-order Franson interference, we infer an entanglement of formation (Eof) up to 1.89 ± 0.03 ebits—where 2 ebits is the maximal entanglement for a 4 × 4 dimensional biphoton—as a lower bound on the 61 time-bin BFC’s high-dimensional entanglement. To further characterize time-binned/frequency-binned BFCs we obtain Schmidt mode decompositions of BFCs generated using cavities with 45.32, 15.15, and 5.03 GHz FSRs. These decompositions confirm the time–frequency scaling from Fourier-transform duality. Moreover, we present the theory of conjugate Franson interferometry—because it is characterized by the state’s joint-temporal intensity (JTI)—which can further help to distinguish between pure-state BFC and mixed state entangled frequency pairs, although the experimental implementation is challenging and not yet available. In summary, our BFC serves as a platform for high-dimensional quantum information processing and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD).

     
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  8. null (Ed.)