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Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 18, 2023
Safety and security play critical roles for the success of Autonomous Driving (AD) systems. Since AD systems heavily rely on AI components, the safety and security research of such components has also received great attention in recent years. While it is widely recognized that AI component-level (mis)behavior does not necessarily lead to AD system-level impacts, most of existing work still only adopts component-level evaluation. To fill such critical scientific methodology-level gap from component-level to real system-level impact, a system-driven evaluation platform jointly constructed by the community could be the solution. In this paper, we present PASS (Platform for Auto-driving Safety and Security), a system-driven evaluation prototype based on simulation. By sharing our platform building concept and preliminary efforts, we hope to call on the community to build a uniform and extensible platform to make AI safety and security work sufficiently meaningful at the system level.
Recent work in adversarial machine learning started to focus on the visual perception in autonomous driving and studied Adversarial Examples (AEs) for object detection models. However, in such visual perception pipeline the detected objects must also be tracked, in a process called Multiple Object Tracking (MOT), to build the moving trajectories of surrounding obstacles. Since MOT is designed to be robust against errors in object detection, it poses a general challenge to existing attack techniques that blindly target objection detection: we find that a success rate of over 98% is needed for them to actually affect the tracking results, a requirement that no existing attack technique can satisfy. In this paper, we are the first to study adversarial machine learning attacks against the complete visual perception pipeline in autonomous driving, and discover a novel attack technique, tracker hijacking, that can effectively fool MOT using AEs on object detection. Using our technique, successful AEs on as few as one single frame can move an existing object in to or out of the headway of an autonomous vehicle to cause potential safety hazards. We perform evaluation using the Berkeley Deep Drive dataset and find that on average when 3 frames are attacked,more »