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  1. Multiple line outages that occur together show a variety of spatial patterns in the power transmission network. Some of these spatial patterns form network contingency motifs, which we define as the patterns of multiple outages that occur much more frequently than multiple outages chosen randomly from the network. We show that choosing N-k contingencies from these commonly occurring contingency motifs accounts for most of the probability of multiple initiating line outages. This result is demonstrated using historical outage data for two transmission systems. It enables N-k contingency lists that are much more efficient in accounting for the likely multiple initiating outages than exhaustive listing or random selection. The N-k contingency lists constructed from motifs can improve risk estimation in cascading outage simulations and help to confirm utility contingency selection. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Timely and accurate bearing fault detection plays an important role in various industries. Data-driven deep learning methods have recently become a prevailing approach for bearing fault detection. Despite the success of deep learning, fault diagnosis performance is hinged upon the size of labeled data, the acquisition of which oftentimes is expensive in actual practice. Unlabeled data, on the other hand, are inexpensive. To fully utilize a large amount of unlabeled data together with limited labeled data to enhance fault detection performance, in this research, we develop a semi-supervised learning method built upon the autoencoder. In this method, a joint loss is established to account for the effects of both the labeled and unlabeled data, which is subsequently used to direct the backpropagation training. Systematic case studies using the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) rolling bearing dataset are carried out, in which the effectiveness of this new method is verified by comparing it with other benchmark models.

     
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  4. Su, Zhongqing ; Limongelli, Maria Pina ; Glisic, Branko (Ed.)
  5. Rolling bearing is a critical component of machinery that has been widely applied in manufacturing, transportation, aerospace, and power and energy industries. The timely and accurate bearing fault detection thus is of vital importance. Computational data-driven deep learning has recently become a prevailing approach for bearing fault detection. Despite the progress of the deep learning approach, the deep learning performance is hinged upon the size of labeled data, the acquisition of which is expensive in actual implementation. Unlabeled data, on the other hand, are inexpensive. In this research, we develop a new semi-supervised learning method built upon the autoencoder to fully utilize a large amount of unlabeled data together with limited labeled data to enhance fault detection performance. Compared with the state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning methods, this proposed method can be more conveniently implemented with fewer hyperparameters to be tuned. In this method, a joint loss is established to account for the effects of labeled and unlabeled data, which is subsequently used to direct the backpropagation training. Systematic case studies using the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) rolling bearing dataset are carried out, in which the effectiveness of this new method is verified by comparing it with other well-established baseline methods. Specifically, nearly all emulation runs using the proposed methodology can lead to around 2%–5% accuracy increase, indicating its robustness in performance enhancement.

     
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