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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 7, 2023
  3. Multifunctional coatings with simultaneous antibacterial and anticorrosive properties are essential for marine environments, oil and gas industry, medical settings, and domestic/public appliances to preserve integrity and functionality of pipes, instruments, and surfaces. In this work, we developed a simple and effective method to prepare graphene oxide (GO)-hybridized waterborne epoxy (GOWE) coating to simultaneously improve anticorrosive and antibacterial properties . The effects of different GO filler ratios (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5, 1 wt%) on the electrochemical and antibacterial behaviors of the waterborne epoxy coating were investigated over short- and long-term periods. The electrochemical behavior was analyzed with salt solution for 64 days. The antibacterial effect of GOWE coating was evaluated with Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1), which is a microorganism that can be involved in corrosion. Our results revealed that concentrations as low as 0.1 wt% of the GO was effective performance than the waterborne epoxy coating without graphene oxide. This result is due to the high hydrophilicity of the graphene oxide fillers, which allowed great dispersion in the waterborne epoxy coating matrix. Furthermore, this study used a corrosion relevant bacterium as a model organism, that is, Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1), which is more relevant for real-word applications. This as-prepared GO-hybridized waterborne polymeric hybrid film providesmore »new insight into the application of 2D nanomaterial polymer composites for simultaneous anticorrosive and antibacterial applications.« less

    The seismic quality factor (Q) of the Earth’s mantle is of great importance for the understanding of the physical and chemical properties that control mantle anelasticity. The radial structure of the Earth’s Q is less well resolved compared to its wave speed structure, and large discrepancies exist among global 1-D Q models. In this study, we build a global data set of amplitude measurements of S, SS, SSS and SSSS waves using earthquakes that occurred between 2009 and 2017 with moment magnitudes ranging from 6.5 to 8.0. Synthetic seismograms for those events are computed in a 1-D reference model PREM, and amplitude ratios between observed and synthetic seismograms are calculated in the frequency domain by spectra division, with measurement windows determined based on visual inspection of seismograms. We simulate wave propagation in a global velocity model S40RTS based on SPECFEM3D and show that the average amplitude ratio as a function of epicentral distance is not sensitive to 3-D focusing and defocusing for the source–receiver configuration of the data set. This data set includes about 5500 S and SS measurements that are not affected by mantle transition zone triplications (multiple ray paths), and those measurements are applied in linear inversions to obtainmore »a preliminary 1-D Q model QMSI. This model reveals a high Q region in the uppermost lower mantle. While model QMSI improves the overall datafit of the entire data set, it does not fully explain SS amplitudes at short epicentral distances or the amplitudes of the SSS and SSSS waves. Using forward modelling, we modify the 1-D model QMSI iteratively to reduce the overall amplitude misfit of the entire data set. The final Q model QMSF requires a stronger and thicker high Q region at depths between 600 and 900 km. This anelastic structure indicates possible viscosity layering in the mid mantle.

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  5. Abstract

    The solid inner core grows through crystallization of the liquid metallic outer core. This process releases latent heat as well as light elements, providing thermal and chemical buoyancy forces to drive the Earth’s geodynamo. Here we investigate temporal changes in the liquid outer core by measuring travel times of core-penetrating SKS waves produced by pairs of large earthquakes at close hypocenters. While the majority of the measurements do not require a change in the outer core, we observe SKS waves that propagate through the upper half of the outer core in the low latitude Pacific travel about one second faster at the time when the second earthquake occurred, about 20 years after the first earthquake. This observation can be explained by 2–3% of density deficit, possibly associated with high-concentration light elements in localized transient flows in the outer core, with a flow speed in the order of 40 km/year.

  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  7. Abstract

    There is a need for rapid, sensitive, specific, and low‐cost virus sensors. Recent work has demonstrated that organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) can detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) spike protein. Here, a simple and low‐cost approach to the fabrication of OECT devices with excellent stability and unprecedented sensitivity and specificity for the detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 virus is demonstrated. The devices rely on the engineered protein minibinder LCB1, which binds strongly to SARS‐CoV‐2. The resulting devices exhibit excellent sensitivity for the detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 virus and SARS‐CoV‐2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). These results demonstrate a simple, effective, and low‐cost biomolecular sensor applicable to the real‐time detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 virus and a general strategy for OECT device design that can be applied for the detection of other pathogenic viruses.