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  1. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are quasi-one dimensional nanostructures that display both high thermal conductivity for potential thermal management applications and intriguing low-dimensional phonon transport phenomena. In comparison to the advances made in the theoretical calculation of the lattice thermal conductivity of CNTs, thermal transport measurements of CNTs have been limited by either the poor temperature sensitivity of Raman thermometry technique or the presence of contact thermal resistance errors in sensitive two-probe resistance thermometry measurements. Here we report advances in a multi-probe measurement of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of individual multi-walled CNT samples that are transferred from the growth substrate onto the measurement device. The sample-thermometer thermal interface resistance is directly measured by this multi-probe method and used to model the temperature distribution along the contacted sample segment. The detailed temperature profile helps to eliminate the contact thermal resistance error in the obtained thermal conductivity of the suspended sample segment. A differential electro-thermal bridge measurement method is established to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and reduce the measurement uncertainty by over 40%. The obtained thermal resistances of multiple suspended segments of the same MWCNT samples increase nearly linearly with increasing length, revealing diffusive phonon transport as a result of phonon-defect scattering in these MWCNT samples. The measured thermal conductivity increases with temperature and reaches up to 390 ± 20 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature for a 9-walled MWCNT. Theoretical analysis of the measurement results suggests submicron phonon mean free paths due to extrinsic phonon scattering by extended defects such as grain boundaries. The obtained thermal conductivity is decreased by a factor of 3 upon electron beam damage and surface contamination of the CNT sample. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    While grain boundaries (GBs) in conventional inorganic semiconductors are frequently considered as detrimental for photogenerated carrier transport, their exact role remains obscure for the emerging hybrid perovskite semiconductors. A primary challenge for GB-property investigations is that experimentally they need to be performed at the top surface, which is not only insensitive to depth-dependent inhomogeneities but also could be susceptible to topographic artifacts. Accordingly, we have developed a unique approach based on tomographic atomic force microscopy, achieving a fully-3D, photogenerated carrier transport map at the nanoscale in hybrid perovskites. This reveals GBs serving as highly interconnected conducting channels for carrier transport. We have further discovered the coexistence of two GB types in hybrid perovskites, one exhibiting enhanced carrier mobilities, while the other is insipid. Our approach reveals otherwise inaccessible buried features and previously unresolved conduction pathways, crucial for optimizing hybrid perovskites for various optoelectronic applications including solar cells and photodetectors.

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  3. Inorganic halide perovskites (IHPs) have recently attracted huge attention in the field of optoelectronics. IHPs are generally expected to exhibit superior chemical stability over the prevailing hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites that are widely used in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting devices. This is primarily owing to the elimination of weakly-bonded organic components in the IHP crystal structure. Nevertheless, many recent studies have revealed that IHPs still suffer significant issues in chemical instability, and thus, a lot of effort has been made towards the stabilization of IHPs for high-performance devices. In this context, a great deal of interest in the chemistry and perovskite community has been emerging to understand the chemical (in)stability of IHPs and develop engineering strategies for making more robust perovskite devices. This review will summarize the past research progress in this direction, give insights into the IHP (in)stability, and provide perspectives for the future effort in making stable IHP materials and devices. 
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