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  1. Abstract Kirigami, a traditional paper cutting art, offers a promising strategy for 2D-to-3D shape morphing through cut-guided deformation. Existing kirigami designs for target 3D curved shapes rely on intricate cut patterns in thin sheets, making the inverse design challenging. Motivated by the Gauss-Bonnet theorem that correlates the geodesic curvature along the boundary with the Gaussian curvature, here, we exploit programming the curvature of cut boundaries rather than the complex cut patterns in kirigami sheets for target 3D curved morphologies through both forward and inverse designs. The strategy largely simplifies the inverse design. Leveraging this strategy, we demonstrate its potential applications as a universal and nondestructive gripper for delicate objects, including live fish, raw egg yolk, and a human hair, as well as dynamically conformable heaters for human knees. This study opens a new avenue to encode boundary curvatures for shape-programing materials with potential applications in soft robotics and wearable devices.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. In this work, we investigate the anelastic deformation behavior of periodic three-dimensional (3D) nanolattices with extremely thin shell thicknesses using nanoindentation. The results show that the nanolattice continues to deform with time under a constant load. In the case of 30-nm-thick aluminum oxide nanolattices, the anelastic deformation accounts for up to 18.1% of the elastic deformation for a constant load of 500 μN. The nanolattices also exhibit up to 15.7% recovery after unloading. Finite element analysis (FEA) coupled with diffusion of point defects is conducted, which is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The anelastic behavior can be attributed to the diffusion of point defects in the presence of a stress gradient and is reversible when the deformation is removed. The FEA model quantifies the evolution of the stress gradient and defect concentration and demonstrates the important role of a wavy tube profile in the diffusion of point defects. The reported anelastic deformation behavior can shed light on time-dependent response of nanolattice materials with implication for energy dissipation applications.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 20, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 26, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  6. Cann, Isaac (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Arsenic (As) metabolism genes are generally present in soils, but their diversity, relative abundance, and transcriptional activity in response to different As concentrations remain unclear, limiting our understanding of the microbial activities that control the fate of an important environmental pollutant. To address this issue, we applied metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to paddy soils showing a gradient of As concentrations to investigate As resistance genes ( ars ) including arsR , acr3 , arsB , arsC , arsM , arsI , arsP , and arsH as well as energy-generating As respiratory oxidation ( aioA ) and reduction ( arrA ) genes. Somewhat unexpectedly, the relative DNA abundances and diversities of ars , aioA , and arrA genes were not significantly different between low and high (∼10 versus ∼100 mg kg −1 ) As soils. Compared to available metagenomes from other soils, geographic distance rather than As levels drove the different compositions of microbial communities. Arsenic significantly increased ars gene abundance only when its concentration was higher than 410 mg kg −1 . In contrast, metatranscriptomics revealed that relative to low-As soils, high-As soils showed a significant increase in transcription of ars and aioA genes, which are induced by arsenite, themore »dominant As species in paddy soils, but not arrA genes, which are induced by arsenate. These patterns appeared to be community wide as opposed to taxon specific. Collectively, our findings advance understanding of how microbes respond to high As levels and the diversity of As metabolism genes in paddy soils and indicated that future studies of As metabolism in soil or other environments should include the function (transcriptome) level. IMPORTANCE Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid pervasively present in the environment. Microorganisms have evolved the capacity to metabolize As, and As metabolism genes are ubiquitously present in the environment even in the absence of high concentrations of As. However, these previous studies were carried out at the DNA level; thus, the activity of the As metabolism genes detected remains essentially speculative. Here, we show that the high As levels in paddy soils increased the transcriptional activity rather than the relative DNA abundance and diversity of As metabolism genes. These findings advance our understanding of how microbes respond to and cope with high As levels and have implications for better monitoring and managing an important toxic metalloid in agricultural soils and possibly other ecosystems.« less
  7. Over 300 species of naturally occurring-organoarsenicals have been identified with the development of modern analytical techniques. Why there so many environmental organoarsenicals exist is a real enigma. Are they protective or harmful? Or are they simply by-products of existing pathways for non-arsenical compounds? Fundamental unanswered questions exist about their occurrence, prevalence and fate in the environment, metabolisms, toxicology and biological functions. This review focuses on possible answers. As a beginning, we classified them into two categories: water-soluble and lipid-soluble organoarsenicals (arsenolipids). Continual improvements in analytical techniques will lead to identification of additional organoarsenicals. In this review, we enumerate identified environmental organoarsenicals and speculate about their pathways of synthesis and degradation based on structural data and previous studies. Organoarsenicals are frequently considered to be nontoxic, yet trivalent methylarsenicals, synthetic aromatic arsenicals and some pentavalent arsenic-containing compounds have been shown to be highly toxic. The biological functions of some organoarsenicals have been defined. For example, arsenobetaine acts as an osmolyte, and membrane arsenolipids have a phosphate-sparing role under phosphate-limited conditions. However, the toxicological properties and biological functions of most organoarsenicals are largely unknown. The objective of this review is to summarize the toxicological and physiological properties and to provide novel insights intomore »future studies.« less