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  1. Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a popular communication protocol used to interconnect devices with considerable network restraints, such as those found in Internet of Things (IoT). MQTT directly impacts a large number of devices, but the software security of its server ("broker") implementations is not well studied. In this paper, we design, implement, and evaluate a novel fuzz testing model for MQTT. The fuzzer combines aspects of mutation guided fuzzing and generation guided fuzzing to rigorously exhaust the MQTT protocol and identify vulnerabilities in servers. We introduce Markov chains for mutation guided fuzzing and generation guided fuzzing that model the fuzzing engine according to a finite Bernoulli process. We implement "response feedback", a novel technique which monitors network and console activity to learn which inputs trigger new responses from the broker. In total, we found 7 major vulnerabilities across 9 different MQTT implementations, including 6 zero-day vulnerabilities and 2 CVEs. We show that when fuzzing these popular MQTT targets, our fuzzer compares favorably with other state-of-the-art fuzzing frameworks, such as BooFuzz and AFLNet. 
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  2. Recent research has shown that in-network observers of WiFi communication (i.e., observers who have joined the WiFi network) can obtain much information regarding the types, user identities, and activities of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices in the network. What has not been explored is the question of how much information can be inferred by an out-of-network observer who does not have access to the WiFi network. This attack scenario is more realistic and much harder to defend against, thus imposes a real threat to user privacy. In this paper, we investigate privacy leakage derived from an out-of-network traffic eavesdropper on the encrypted WiFi traffic of popular IoT devices. We instrumented a testbed of 12 popular IoT devices and evaluated multiple machine learning methods for fingerprinting and inferring what IoT devices exist in a WiFi network. By only exploiting the WiFi frame header information, we have achieved 95% accuracy in identifying the devices and often their working status. This study demonstrates that information leakage and privacy attack is a real threat for WiFi networks and IoT applications. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    A significant challenge in blockchain and cryptocurrencies is protecting private keys from potential hackers because nobody can rollback a transaction made with a stolen key once the blockchain network confirms the transaction. The technical solution to protect private keys is cryptocurrency wallets, a piece of software, hardware, or a combination of them to manage the keys. In this paper, we propose a multilayered architecture for cryptocurrency wallets based on a Defense-in-Depth strategy to protect private keys with a balance between convenience and security. The user protects the private keys in three restricted layers with different protection mechanisms. So, a single breach cannot threaten the entire fund, and it saves time for the user to respond. We implement a proof-of-concept of our proposed architecture on both a smart card hardware wallet and an Android smartphone wallet with no performance penalty. Furthermore, we analyze the security of our proposed architecture with two adversary models. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Bitcoin and other altcoin cryptocurrencies use the Elliptic-Curve cryptography to control the ownership of coins. A user has one or more private keys to sign a transaction and send coins to others. The user locks her private keys with a password and stores them on a piece of software or a hardware wallet to protect them. A challenge in cryptocurrencies is losing access to private keys by its user, resulting in inaccessible coins. These coins are assigned to addresses which access to their private keys is impossible. Today, about 20 percent of all possible bitcoins are inaccessible and lost forever. A promising solution is the off-chain recovery transaction that aggregates all available coins to send them to an address when the private key is not accessible. Unfortunately, this recovery transaction must be regenerated after all sends and receives, and it is time-consuming to generate on hardware wallets. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism called lean recovery transaction to tackle this problem. We make a change in wallet key management to generate the recovery transaction as less frequently as possible. In our design, the wallet generates a lean recovery transaction only when needed and provides better performance, especially for micropayment. We evaluate the regular recovery transaction on two real hardware wallets and implement our proposed mechanism on a hardware wallet. We achieve a %40 percentage of less processing time for generating payment transactions with few numbers of inputs. The performance difference becomes even more significant, with a larger number of inputs. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    With the hardware costs becoming cheaper day by day and with industry giants focus, Cloud computing has exploded and reached leaps and bounds in the last 15 years. With the power of creating, using and destroying virtual machines in the cloud at the tip of mouse click, industries have started moving their core applications to the cloud. This has reduced the hassle for industries to maintain the hardware by themselves. Tech giants like Amazon, Microsoft and Google are head of the game and the fierce competition between them has led to astonishing innovation. With so many players in the cloud market, it is essential for cloud users to know how each of the services provided by these cloud service providers are performing against each other. In this paper we have evaluated the performance of famous OLTP benchmark TPC-C on these cloud providers. It is observed that Amazon's AWS has performed better than Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform in terms of the number of transactions/orders per second, and I/O reads/writes. We have done the extended comparison with respect to transaction throughput, database throughput and Machine throughput. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Research and experimentation using big data sets, specifically large sets of electronic health records (EHR) and social media data, is demonstrating the potential to understand the spread of diseases and a variety of other issues. Applications of advanced algorithms, machine learning, and artificial intelligence indicate a potential for rapidly advancing improvements in public health. For example, several reports indicate that social media data can be used to predict disease outbreak and spread (Brown, 2015). Since real-world EHR data has complicated security and privacy issues preventing it from being widely used by researchers, there is a real need to synthetically generate EHR data that is realistic and representative. Current EHR generators, such as Syntheaä (Walonoski et al., 2018) only simulate and generate pure medical-related data. However, adding patients’ social media data with their simulated EHR data would make combined data more comprehensive and realistic for healthcare research. This paper presents a patients’ social media data generator that extends an EHR data generator. By adding coherent social media data to EHR data, a variety of issues can be examined for emerging interests, such as where a contagious patient may have been and others with whom they may have been in contact. Social media data, specifically Twitter data, is generated with phrases indicating the onset of symptoms corresponding to the synthetically generated EHR reports of simulated patients. This enables creation of an open data set that is scalable up to a big-data size, and is not subject to the security, privacy concerns, and restrictions of real healthcare data sets. This capability is important to the modeling and simulation community, such as scientists and epidemiologists who are developing algorithms to analyze the spread of diseases. It enables testing a variety of analytics without revealing real-world private patient information. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    In this paper, we explore the use of microcontrollers (MCUs) and crypto coprocessors to secure IoT applications, and show how developers may implement a low-cost platform that provides protects private keys against software attacks. We first demonstrate the plausibility of format string attacks on the ESP32, a popular MCU from Espressif that uses the Harvard architecture. The format string attacks can be used to remotely steal private keys hard-coded in the firmware. We then present a framework termed SIC 2 (Securing IoT with Crypto Coprocessors), for secure key provisioning that protects end users' private keys from both software attacks and untrustworthy manufacturers. As a proof of concept, we pair the ESP32 with the low-cost ATECC608A cryptographic coprocessor by Microchip and connect to Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Amazon Elastic Container Service (EC2) using a hardware-protected private key, which provides the security features of TLS communication including authentication, encryption and integrity. We have developed a prototype and performed extensive experiments to show that the ATECC608A crypto chip may significantly reduce the TLS handshake time by as much as 82% with the remote server, and it may lower the total energy consumption of the system by up to 70%. Our results indicate that securing IoT with crypto coprocessors is a practicable solution for low-cost MCU based IoT devices. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    Internet of Things (IoT) devices have been increasingly integrated into our daily life. However, such smart devices suffer a broad attack surface. Particularly, attacks targeting the device software at runtime are challenging to defend against if IoT devices use resource-constrained microcontrollers (MCUs). TrustZone-M, a TrustZone extension for MCUs, is an emerging security technique fortifying MCU based IoT devices. This paper presents the first security analysis of potential software security issues in TrustZone-M enabled MCUs. We explore the stack-based buffer overflow (BOF) attack for code injection, return-oriented programming (ROP) attack, heap-based BOF attack, format string attack, and attacks against Non-secure Callable (NSC) functions in the context of TrustZone-M. We validate these attacks using the Microchip SAM L11 MCU, which uses the ARM Cortex-M23 processor with the TrustZone-M technology. Strategies to mitigate these software attacks are also discussed. 
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