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  1. Genetic variants of mitochondrial DNA at the individual (heteroplasmy) and population (polymorphism) levels provide insight into their roles in multiple cellular and evolutionary processes. However, owing to the paucity of genome-wide data at the within-individual and population levels, the broad patterns of these two forms of variation remain poorly understood. Here, we analyze 1,804 complete mitochondrial genome sequences from Daphnia pulex, Daphnia pulicaria, and Daphnia obtusa. Extensive heteroplasmy is observed in D. obtusa, where the high level of intraclonal divergence must have resulted from a biparental-inheritance event, and recombination in the mitochondrial genome is apparent, although perhaps not widespread. Global samples of D. pulex reveal remarkably low mitochondrial effective population sizes, <3% of those for the nuclear genome. In addition, levels of population diversity in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are uncorrelated across populations, suggesting an idiosyncratic evolutionary history of mitochondria in D. pulex. These population-genetic features appear to be a consequence of background selection associated with highly deleterious mutations arising in the strongly linked mitochondrial genome, which is consistent with polymorphism and divergence data suggesting a predominance of strong purifying selection. Nonetheless, the fixation of mildly deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial genome also appears to be driving positive selection on genes encoded in the nuclear genome whose products are deployed in the mitochondrion. 
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  2. Nonindigenous members of the Daphnia pulex complex have been found in many lakes in New Zealand (NZ) in the past 20 years, suggesting a recent invasion. However, very little is known about the precise phylogenetic origin of invasive Daphnia, whether each lake is invaded by a single clone or multiple clones, the lineage of the invasive clones, and whether they are obligately asexual clones. Furthermore, the source and time of arrival of the invasive genotype(s) are unclear. We address these questions by genomic sequencing of Daphnia populations from 13 lakes in the South Island and 1 lake in the North Island, NZ. All biallelic sites in these NZ populations have similar numbers of reads for the two parental alleles, suggesting each NZ population originates from a single asexual clone. Based on 25,643 monomorphic lineage-specific markers, the invasive Daphnia in the South Island were found to be Daphnia pulicaria Forbes, while those in the North Island are hybrids of D. pulicaria Forbes and D. cf. pulex sensu Hebert. Both the South and North Island Daphnia are phylogenetically clustered with North American Daphnia, thereby suggesting their North American origins. We found also that all South Island clones contain identical mitochondrial genomes, suggesting the origin and proliferation from a single founder clone, which we experimentally verified to be an obligate asexual. Estimates from molecular data imply a colonization time for the South Island clones of ~ 60 years ago, with a likely invasion route associated with the introduction of salmonids from North America. 
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