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  1. Abstract

    All mitochondrial-encoded proteins and RNAs function through interactions with nuclear-encoded proteins, which are critical for mitochondrial performance and eukaryotic fitness. Coevolution maintains inter-genomic (i.e., mitonuclear) compatibility within a taxon, but hybridization can disrupt coevolved interactions, resulting in hybrid breakdown. Thus, mitonuclear incompatibilities may be important mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation and, potentially, speciation. Here we utilize Pool-seq to assess the effects of mitochondrial genotype on nuclear allele frequencies in fast- and slow-developing reciprocal inter-population F2 hybrids between relatively low-divergence populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus. We show that mitonuclear interactions lead to elevated frequencies of coevolved (i.e., maternal) nuclear alleles on two chromosomes in crosses between populations with 1.5% or 9.6% fixed differences in mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequence. However, we also find evidence of excess mismatched (i.e., noncoevolved) alleles on three or four chromosomes per cross, respectively, and of allele frequency differences consistent with effects involving only nuclear loci (i.e., unaffected by mitochondrial genotype). Thus, our results for low-divergence crosses suggest an underlying role for mitonuclear interactions in variation in hybrid developmental rate, but despite substantial effects of mitonuclear coevolution on individual chromosomes, no clear bias favoring coevolved interactions overall.

     
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  2. Katz, Laura A (Ed.)
    Abstract Sterility among hybrids is one of the most prevalent forms of reproductive isolation delineating species boundaries and is expressed disproportionately in heterogametic XY males. While hybrid male sterility (HMS) due to the “large X effect” is a well-recognized mechanism of reproductive isolation, it is less clear how HMS manifests in species that lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes. We evaluated differences in allele frequencies at approximately 460,000 SNPs between fertile and sterile F2 interpopulation male hybrids to characterize the genomic architecture of HMS in a species without sex chromosomes (Tigriopus californicus). We tested associations between HMS and mitochondrial-nuclear and/or nuclear-nuclear signatures of incompatibility. Genomic regions associated with HMS were concentrated on a single chromosome with the same primary 2-Mbp regions identified in one pair of reciprocal crosses. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that annotations associated with spermatogenesis were the most overrepresented within the implicated region, with nine protein-coding genes connected with this process found in the quantitative trait locus of chromosome 2. Our results indicate that a narrow genomic region was associated with the sterility of male hybrids in T. californicus and suggest that incompatibilities among select nuclear loci may replace the large X effect when sex chromosomes are absent. 
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  3. Oxidative phosphorylation, the primary source of cellular energy in eukaryotes, requires gene products encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. As a result, functional integration between the genomes is essential for efficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. Although within populations this integration is presumably maintained by coevolution, the importance of mitonuclear coevolution in key biological processes such as speciation and mitochondrial disease has been questioned. In this study, we crossed populations of the intertidal copepodTigriopus californicusto disrupt putatively coevolved mitonuclear genotypes in reciprocal F2hybrids. We utilized interindividual variation in developmental rate among these hybrids as a proxy for fitness to assess the strength of selection imposed on the nuclear genome by alternate mitochondrial genotypes. Developmental rate varied among hybrid individuals, and in vitro ATP synthesis rates of mitochondria isolated from high-fitness hybrids were approximately two-fold greater than those of mitochondria isolated from low-fitness individuals. We then used Pool-seq to compare nuclear allele frequencies for high- or low-fitness hybrids. Significant biases for maternal alleles were detected on 5 (of 12) chromosomes in high-fitness individuals of both reciprocal crosses, whereas maternal biases were largely absent in low-fitness individuals. Therefore, the most fit hybrids were those with nuclear alleles that matched their mitochondrial genotype on these chromosomes, suggesting that mitonuclear effects underlie individual-level variation in developmental rate and that intergenomic compatibility is critical for high fitness. We conclude that mitonuclear interactions can have profound impacts on both physiological performance and the evolutionary trajectory of the nuclear genome.

     
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