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To identify superior thermal contacts to graphene, we implement a high-throughput methodology that systematically explores the Ni−Pd alloy composition spectrum and the effect of Cr adhesion layer thickness on thermal interface conductance with monolayer graphene. Frequency domain thermoreflectance measurements of two independently prepared Ni−Pd/Cr/graphene/ SiO2 samples identify a maximum metal/graphene/SiO2 junction thermal interface conductance of 114 ± (39, 25) MW/m2 K and 113 ± (33, 22) MW/m2 K at ∼10 at. % Pd in Ninearly double the highest reported value for pure metals and 3 times that of pure Ni or Pd. The presence of Cr, at any thickness, suppresses this maximum. Although the origin of the peak is unresolved, we find that it correlates with a region of the Ni−Pd phase diagram that exhibits a miscibility gap. Cross-sectional imaging by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy identifies striations in the alloy at this particular composition, consistent with separation into multiple phases. Through this work, we draw attention to alloys in the search for better contacts to two-dimensional materials for next-generation devices.
Surface segregation is a phenomenon common to all multicomponent materials and one that plays a critical role in determining their surface properties. Comprehensive studies of surface segregation versus bulk composition in ternary alloys have been prohibitive because of the need to study many different compositions. In this work, high-throughput low-energy He+ ionscattering spectra and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra were collected from a CuxAuyPd1−x−y composition spread alloy film under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. These have been used to quantify surface segregation across the entire CuxAuyPd1−x−y composition space (x = 0 → 1 and y = 0 → 1 − x). Surface compositions at 164 different bulk compositions were measured at 500 and 600 K. At both temperatures, Au shows the greatest tendency for segregation to the top-most surface while Pd is always depleted from the surface. Higher temperatures enhance the Au segregation. Segregation at most of the binary alloy bulk compositions matches with observations previously reported in the literature. However, surface compositions in the CuPd B2 composition region reveal segregation profiles that are nonmonotonic in bulk alloy composition. These were not observable in prior studies because of their limited resolution of composition space. An extended Langmuir−MacLean model, which describes ternary alloy segregation, hasmore »