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  1. As the number of weight parameters in deep neural networks (DNNs) continues growing, the demand for ultra-efficient DNN accelerators has motivated research on non-traditional architectures with emerging technologies. Resistive Random-Access Memory (ReRAM) crossbar has been utilized to perform insitu matrix-vector multiplication of DNNs. DNN weight pruning techniques have also been applied to ReRAM-based mixed-signal DNN accelerators, focusing on reducing weight storage and accelerating computation. However, the existing works capture very few peripheral circuits features such as Analog to Digital converters (ADCs) during the neural network design. Unfortunately, ADCs have become the main part of power consumption and area cost of current mixed-signal accelerators, and the large overhead of these peripheral circuits is not solved efficiently. To address this problem, we propose a novel weight pruning framework for ReRAM-based mixed-signal DNN accelerators, named TINYADC, which effectively reduces the required bits for ADC resolution and hence the overall area and power consumption of the accelerator without introducing any computational inaccuracy. Compared to state-of-the-art pruning work on the ImageNet dataset, TINYADC achieves 3.5× and 2.9× power and area reduction, respectively. TINYADC framework optimizes the throughput of state-of-the-art architecture design by 29% and 40% in terms of the throughput per unit of millimeter squaremore »and watt (GOPs/s×mm 2 and GOPs/w), respectively.« less
  2. The memristor crossbar array has emerged as an intrinsically suitable matrix computation and low-power acceleration framework for DNN applications. Many techniques such as memristor-based weight pruning and memristor-based quantization have been studied. However, the high accuracy solution for the above techniques is still waiting for unraveling. In this paper, we propose a memristor-based DNN framework which combines both structured weight pruning and quantization by incorporating ADMM algorithm for better pruning and quantization performance. We also discover the non-optimality of the ADMM solution in weight pruning and the unused data path in a structured pruned model. We design a software-hardware co-optimization framework which contains the first proposed Network Purification and Unused Path Removal algorithms targeting on post-processing a structured pruned model after ADMM steps. By taking memristor hardware constraints into our whole framework, we achieve extreme high compression rate with minimum accuracy loss. For quantizing structured pruned model, our framework achieves nearly no accuracy loss after quantizing weights to 8-bit memristor weight representation. We share our models at anonymous link
  3. The high computation and memory storage of large deep neural networks (DNNs) models pose intensive challenges to the conventional Von-Neumann architecture, incurring substantial data movements in the memory hierarchy. The memristor crossbar array has emerged as a promising solution to mitigate the challenges and enable low-power acceleration of DNNs. Memristor-based weight pruning and weight quantization have been separately investigated and proven effectiveness in reducing area and power consumption compared to the original DNN model. However, there has been no systematic investigation of memristor-based neuromorphic computing (NC) systems considering both weight pruning and weight quantization. In this paper, we propose an unified and systematic memristor-based framework considering both structured weight pruning and weight quantization by incorporating alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) into DNNs training. We consider hardware constraints such as crossbar blocks pruning, conductance range, and mismatch between weight value and real devices, to achieve high accuracy and low power and small area footprint. Our framework is mainly integrated by three steps, i.e., memristor- based ADMM regularized optimization, masked mapping and retraining. Experimental results show that our proposed frame- work achieves 29.81× (20.88×) weight compression ratio, with 98.38% (96.96%) and 98.29% (97.47%) power and area reduction on VGG-16 (ResNet-18) networkmore »where only have 0.5% (0.76%) accuracy loss, compared to the original DNN models. We share our models at anonymous link .« less
  4. Throughout many scientific and engineering fields, including control theory, quantum mechanics, advanced dynamics, and network theory, a great many important applications rely on the spectral decomposition of matrices. Traditional methods such as the power iteration method, Jacobi eigenvalue method, and QR decomposition are commonly used to compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a square and symmetric matrix. However, these methods suffer from certain drawbacks: in particular, the power iteration method can only find the leading eigen-pair (i.e., the largest eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector), while the Jacobi and QR decomposition methods face significant performance limitations when facing with large scale matrices. Typically, even producing approximate eigenpairs of a general square matrix requires at least O(N^3) time complexity, where N is the number of rows of the matrix. In this work, we exploit the newly developed memristor technology to propose a low-complexity, scalable memristor-based method for deriving a set of dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors for real symmetric non-negative matrices. The time complexity for our proposed algorithm is O(N^2 /Δ) (where Δ governs the accuracy). We present experimental studies to simulate the memristor-supporting algorithm, with results demonstrating that the average error for our method is within 4%, while its performance is upmore »to 1.78X better than traditional methods.« less
  5. Memristors have recently received significant attention as device-level components for building a novel generation of computing systems. These devices have many promising features, such as non-volatility, low power consumption, high density, and excellent scalability. The ability to control and modify biasing voltages at memristor terminals make them promising candidates to efficiently perform matrix-vector multiplications and solve systems of linear equations. In this article, we discuss how networks of memristors arranged in crossbar arrays can be used for efficiently solving optimization and machine learning problems. We introduce a new memristor-based optimization framework that combines the computational merits of memristor crossbars with the advantages of an operator splitting method, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Here, ADMM helps in splitting a complex optimization problem into subproblems that involve the solution of systems of linear equations. The strength of this framework is shown by applying it to linear programming, quadratic programming, and sparse optimization. In addition to ADMM, implementation of a customized power iteration method for eigenvalue/eigenvector computation using memristor crossbars is discussed. The memristor-based power iteration method can further be applied to principal component analysis. The use of memristor crossbars yields a significant speed-up in computation, and thus, we believe, hasmore »the potential to advance optimization and machine learning research in artificial intelligence.« less
  6. As one of the most promising future fundamental devices, memristor has its unique advantage on implementing low-power high-speed matrix multiplication. Taking advantage of the high performance on basic matrix operation and flexibilitys of memristor crossbars, in this paper, we investigate both discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) and miltiple-input and multi-output (MIMO) detection unit in baseband processor. We reformulate the signal processing algorithms and model structures into a matrix-based framework, and present a memristor crossbar based DFT module design and MIMO detector module design. For both designs, experimental results demonstrate significant gains in speed and power efficiency compared with traditional CMOS-based designs.
  7. In this paper, we propose a new approach for robust compressive sensing (CS) using memristor crossbars that are constructed by recently invented memristor devices. The exciting features of a memristor crossbar, such as high density, low power and great scalability, make it a promising candidate to perform large-scale matrix operations. To apply memristor crossbars to solve a robust CS problem, the alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) is employed to split the original problem into subproblems that involve the solution of systems of linear equations. A system of linear equations can then be solved using memristor crossbars with astonishing O(1) time complexity. We also study the impact of hardware variations on the memristor crossbar based CS solver from both theoretical and practical points of view. The resulting overall complexity is given by O(n), which achieves O(n2.5) speed-up compared to the state-of-the-art software approach. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed CS solver.
  8. A memristor crossbar, which is constructed with memristor devices, has the unique ability to change and memorize the state of each of its memristor elements. It also has other highly desirable features such as high density, low power operation and excellent scalability. Hence the memristor crossbar technology can potentially be utilized for developing low-complexity and high-scalability solution frameworks for solving a large class of convex optimization problems, which involve extensive matrix operations and have critical applications in multiple disciplines. This paper, as the first attempt towards this direction, proposes a novel memristor crossbar-based framework for solving two important convex optimization problems, i.e., second-order cone programming (SOCP) and homogeneous quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problems. In this paper, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is adopted. It splits the SOCP and homogeneous QCQP problems into sub-problems that involve the solution of linear systems, which could be effectively solved using the memristor crossbar in O(1) time complexity. The proposed algorithm is an iterative procedure that iterates a constant number of times. Therefore, algorithms to solve SOCP and homogeneous QCQP problems have pseudo-O(N) complexity, which is a significant reduction compared to the state-of-the-art software solvers (O(N3.5)-O(N4)).