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  1. Haptic feedback allows an individual to identify various object properties. In this preliminary study, we determined the performance of stiffness recognition using transcutaneous nerve stimulation when a prosthetic hand was moved passively or was controlled actively by the subjects. Using a 2×8 electrode grid placed along the subject's upper arm, electrical stimulation was delivered to evoke somatotopic sensation along their index finger. Stimulation intensity, i.e. sensation strength, was modulated using the fingertip forces from a sensorized prosthetic hand. Object stiffness was encoded based on the rate of change of the evoked sensation as the prosthesis grasped one of three objects of different stiffness levels. During active control, sensation was modulated in real time as recorded forces were converted to stimulation amplitudes. During passive control, prerecorded force traces were randomly selected from a pool. Our results showed that the accuracy of object stiffness recognition was similar in both active and passive conditions. A slightly lower accuracy was observed during active control in one subject, which indicated that the sensorimotor integration processes could affect haptic perception for some users.