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  1. Large-scale multiuser scientific facilities, such as geographically distributed observatories, remote instruments, and experimental platforms, represent some of the largest national investments and can enable dramatic advances across many areas of science. Recent examples of such advances include the detection of gravitational waves and the imaging of a black hole’s event horizon. However, as the number of such facilities and their users grow, along with the complexity, diversity, and volumes of their data products, finding and accessing relevant data is becoming increasingly challenging, limiting the potential impact of facilities. These challenges are further amplified as scientists and application workflows increasingly trymore »to integrate facilities’ data from diverse domains. In this paper, we leverage concepts underlying recommender systems, which are extremely effective in e-commerce, to address these data-discovery and data-access challenges for large-scale distributed scientific facilities. We first analyze data from facilities and identify and model user-query patterns in terms of facility location and spatial localities, domain-specific data models, and user associations. We then use this analysis to generate a knowledge graph and develop the collaborative knowledge-aware graph attention network (CKAT) recommendation model, which leverages graph neural networks (GNNs) to explicitly encode the collaborative signals through propagation and combine them with knowledge associations. Moreover, we integrate a knowledge-aware neural attention mechanism to enable the CKAT to pay more attention to key information while reducing irrelevant noise, thereby increasing the accuracy of the recommendations. We apply the proposed model on two real-world facility datasets and empirically demonstrate that the CKAT can effectively facilitate data discovery, significantly outperforming several compelling state-of-the-art baseline models.« less
  2. Our research aims to improve the accuracy of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems by means of machine learning. EEW systems are designed to detect and characterize medium and large earthquakes before their damaging effects reach a certain location. Traditional EEW methods based on seismometers fail to accurately identify large earthquakes due to their sensitivity to the ground motion velocity. The recently introduced high-precision GPS stations, on the other hand, are ineffective to identify medium earthquakes due to its propensity to produce noisy data. In addition, GPS stations and seismometers may be deployed in large numbers across different locations and maymore »produce a significant volume of data consequently, affecting the response time and the robustness of EEW systems.In practice, EEW can be seen as a typical classification problem in the machine learning field: multi-sensor data are given in input, and earthquake severity is the classification result. In this paper, we introduce the Distributed Multi-Sensor Earthquake Early Warning (DMSEEW) system, a novel machine learning-based approach that combines data from both types of sensors (GPS stations and seismometers) to detect medium and large earthquakes. DMSEEW is based on a new stacking ensemble method which has been evaluated on a real-world dataset validated with geoscientists. The system builds on a geographically distributed infrastructure, ensuring an efficient computation in terms of response time and robustness to partial infrastructure failures. Our experiments show that DMSEEW is more accurate than the traditional seismometer-only approach and the combined-sensors (GPS and seismometers) approach that adopts the rule of relative strength.« less
  3. Many real-world applications involve longitudinal data, consisting of observations of several variables, where different subsets of variables are sampled at irregularly spaced time points. We introduce the Longitudinal Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model (L-GPLVM), a variant of the Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model, for learning compact representations of such data. L-GPLVM overcomes a key limitation of the Dynamic Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model and its variants, which rely on the assumption that the data are fully observed over all of the sampled time points. We describe an effective approach to learning the parameters of L-GPLVM from sparse observations, by couplingmore »the dynamical model with a Multitask Gaussian Process model for sampling of the missing observations at each step of the gradient-based optimization of the variational lower bound. We further show the advantage of the Sparse Process Convolution framework to learn the latent representation of sparsely and irregularly sampled longitudinal data with minimal computational overhead relative to a standard Latent Variable Model. We demonstrated experiments with synthetic data as well as variants of MOCAP data with varying degrees of sparsity of observations that show that L-GPLVM substantially and consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art alternatives in recovering the missing observations even when the available data exhibits a high degree of sparsity. The compact representations of irregularly sampled and sparse longitudinal data can be used to perform a variety of machine learning tasks, including clustering, classification, and regression.« less
  4. Graph Neural Networks (GNN) offer the powerful approach to node classification in complex networks across many domains including social media, E-commerce, and FinTech. However, recent studies show that GNNs are vulnerable to attacks aimed at adversely impacting their node classification performance. Existing studies of adversarial attacks on GNN focus primarily on manipulating the connectivity between existing nodes, a task that requires greater effort on the part of the attacker in real-world applications. In contrast, it is much more expedient on the part of the attacker to inject adversarial nodes, e.g., fake profiles with forged links, into existing graphs so asmore »to reduce the performance of the GNN in classifying existing nodes. Hence, we consider a novel form of node injection poisoning attacks on graph data. We model the key steps of a node injection attack, e.g., establishing links between the injected adversarial nodes and other nodes, choosing the label of an injected node, etc. by a Markov Decision Process. We propose a novel reinforcement learning method for Node Injection Poisoning Attacks (NIPA), to sequentially modify the labels and links of the injected nodes, without changing the connectivity between existing nodes. Specifically, we introduce a hierarchical Q-learning network to manipulate the labels of the adversarial nodes and their links with other nodes in the graph, and design an appropriate reward function to guide the reinforcement learning agent to reduce the node classification performance of GNN. The results of the experiments show that NIPA is consistently more effective than the baseline node injection attack methods for poisoning graph data on three benchmark datasets.« less