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  1. Abstract

    Transfer learning refers to the process of adapting a model trained on a source task to a target task. While kernel methods are conceptually and computationally simple models that are competitive on a variety of tasks, it has been unclear how to develop scalable kernel-based transfer learning methods across general source and target tasks with possibly differing label dimensions. In this work, we propose a transfer learning framework for kernel methods by projecting and translating the source model to the target task. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework in applications to image classification and virtual drug screening. For both applications, we identify simple scaling laws that characterize the performance of transfer-learned kernels as a function of the number of target examples. We explain this phenomenon in a simplified linear setting, where we are able to derive the exact scaling laws.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Many real-world decision-making tasks require learning causal relationships between a set of variables. Traditional causal discovery methods, however, require that all variables are observed, which is often not feasible in practical scenarios. Without additional assumptions about the unobserved variables, it is not possible to recover any causal relationships from observational data. Fortunately, in many applied settings, additional structure among the confounders can be expected. In particular, pervasive confounding is commonly encountered and has been utilised for consistent causal estimation in linear causal models. In this article, we present a provably consistent method to estimate causal relationships in the nonlinear, pervasive confounding setting. The core of our procedure relies on the ability to estimate the confounding variation through a simple spectral decomposition of the observed data matrix. We derive a DAG score function based on this insight, prove its consistency in recovering a correct ordering of the DAG, and empirically compare it to previous approaches. We demonstrate improved performance on both simulated and real datasets by explicitly accounting for both confounders and nonlinear effects.

     
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  3. Abstract

    A fundamental challenge in diagnostics is integrating multiple modalities to develop a joint characterization of physiological state. Using the heart as a model system, we develop a cross-modal autoencoder framework for integrating distinct data modalities and constructing a holistic representation of cardiovascular state. In particular, we use our framework to construct such cross-modal representations from cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRIs), containing structural information, and electrocardiograms (ECGs), containing myoelectric information. We leverage the learned cross-modal representation to (1) improve phenotype prediction from a single, accessible phenotype such as ECGs; (2) enable imputation of hard-to-acquire cardiac MRIs from easy-to-acquire ECGs; and (3) develop a framework for performing genome-wide association studies in an unsupervised manner. Our results systematically integrate distinct diagnostic modalities into a common representation that better characterizes physiologic state.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Tissue development and disease lead to changes in cellular organization, nuclear morphology, and gene expression, which can be jointly measured by spatial transcriptomic technologies. However, methods for jointly analyzing the different spatial data modalities in 3D are still lacking. We present a computational framework to integrate Spatial Transcriptomic data using over-parameterized graph-based Autoencoders with Chromatin Imaging data (STACI) to identify molecular and functional alterations in tissues. STACI incorporates multiple modalities in a single representation for downstream tasks, enables the prediction of spatial transcriptomic data from nuclear images in unseen tissue sections, and provides built-in batch correction of gene expression and tissue morphology through over-parameterization. We apply STACI to analyze the spatio-temporal progression of Alzheimer’s disease and identify the associated nuclear morphometric and coupled gene expression features. Collectively, we demonstrate the importance of characterizing disease progression by integrating multiple data modalities and its potential for the discovery of disease biomarkers.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Given the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a major challenge is to rapidly repurpose existing approved drugs for clinical interventions. While a number of data-driven and experimental approaches have been suggested in the context of drug repurposing, a platform that systematically integrates available transcriptomic, proteomic and structural data is missing. More importantly, given that SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity is highly age-dependent, it is critical to integrate aging signatures into drug discovery platforms. We here take advantage of large-scale transcriptional drug screens combined with RNA-seq data of the lung epithelium with SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the aging lung. To identify robust druggable protein targets, we propose a principled causal framework that makes use of multiple data modalities. Our analysis highlights the importance of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases as potential targets that intersect the SARS-CoV-2 and aging pathways. By integrating transcriptomic, proteomic and structural data that is available for many diseases, our drug discovery platform is broadly applicable. Rigorous in vitro experiments as well as clinical trials are needed to validate the identified candidate drugs.

     
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  6. Abstract

    The development of single-cell methods for capturing different data modalities including imaging and sequencing has revolutionized our ability to identify heterogeneous cell states. Different data modalities provide different perspectives on a population of cells, and their integration is critical for studying cellular heterogeneity and its function. While various methods have been proposed to integrate different sequencing data modalities, coupling imaging and sequencing has been an open challenge. We here present an approach for integrating vastly different modalities by learning a probabilistic coupling between the different data modalities using autoencoders to map to a shared latent space. We validate this approach by integrating single-cell RNA-seq and chromatin images to identify distinct subpopulations of human naive CD4+ T-cells that are poised for activation. Collectively, our approach provides a framework to integrate and translate between data modalities that cannot yet be measured within the same cell for diverse applications in biomedical discovery.

     
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  7. While neural networks are used for classification tasks across domains, a long-standing open problem in machine learning is determining whether neural networks trained using standard procedures are consistent for classification, i.e., whether such models minimize the probability of misclassification for arbitrary data distributions. In this work, we identify and construct an explicit set of neural network classifiers that are consistent. Since effective neural networks in practice are typically both wide and deep, we analyze infinitely wide networks that are also infinitely deep. In particular, using the recent connection between infinitely wide neural networks and neural tangent kernels, we provide explicit activation functions that can be used to construct networks that achieve consistency. Interestingly, these activation functions are simple and easy to implement, yet differ from commonly used activations such as ReLU or sigmoid. More generally, we create a taxonomy of infinitely wide and deep networks and show that these models implement one of three well-known classifiers depending on the activation function used: 1) 1-nearest neighbor (model predictions are given by the label of the nearest training example); 2) majority vote (model predictions are given by the label of the class with the greatest representation in the training set); or 3) singular kernel classifiers (a set of classifiers containing those that achieve consistency). Our results highlight the benefit of using deep networks for classification tasks, in contrast to regression tasks, where excessive depth is harmful. 
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  8. Matrix completion problems arise in many applications including recommendation systems, computer vision, and genomics. Increasingly larger neural networks have been successful in many of these applications but at considerable computational costs. Remarkably, taking the width of a neural network to infinity allows for improved computational performance. In this work, we develop an infinite width neural network framework for matrix completion that is simple, fast, and flexible. Simplicity and speed come from the connection between the infinite width limit of neural networks and kernels known as neural tangent kernels (NTK). In particular, we derive the NTK for fully connected and convolutional neural networks for matrix completion. The flexibility stems from a feature prior, which allows encoding relationships between coordinates of the target matrix, akin to semisupervised learning. The effectiveness of our framework is demonstrated through competitive results for virtual drug screening and image inpainting/reconstruction. We also provide an implementation in Python to make our framework accessible on standard hardware to a broad audience. 
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