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  1. Abstract

    Optical transmission and scattering spectroscopic microscopy at the visible and adjacent wavelengths denote one of the most informative and inclusive characterization methods in material research. Unfortunately, restricted by the diffraction limit of light, it cannot resolve the nanoscale variation in light absorption and scattering, diagnostics of the local inhomogeneity in material structure and properties. Moreover, a large quantity of nanomaterials has anisotropic optical properties that are appealing yet hard to characterize through conventional optical methods. There is an increasing demand to extend the optical hyperspectral imaging into the nanometer length scale. In this work, we report a super-resolution hyperspectral imaging technique that uses a nanoscale white light source generated by superfocusing the light from a tungsten-halogen lamp to simultaneously obtain optical transmission and scattering spectroscopic images. A 6-nm spatial resolution in the visible to near-infrared wavelength regime (415–980 nm) is demonstrated on an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SW-CNT). Both the longitudinal and transverse optical electronic transitions are measured, and the SW-CNT chiral indices can be identified. The band structure modulation in a SW-CNT through strain engineering is mapped.

  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 12, 2024
  3. Chemically-synthesized single-crystalline silver nanowire (AgNW) probes can combine the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) technique with tip-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (TERS) for complementary morphological and chemical information with nanoscale spatial resolution. However, its performance has been limited by the blunt nanowire tip geometry, the insulating surfactant layer coating AgNW surfaces, and the thermal-induced mechanical vibrations. Here, we report a reproducible fabrication method for the preparation of sharp-tip AgNW-based TERS probes. By removing the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant molecules from the AgNW surfaces for stable electrical conductivity and controlling the protruding length with μm-level accuracy for improved mechanical stability, we demonstrate atomic-resolution STM imaging with the sharp-tip AgNW probe. Furthermore, the sharp-tip AgNW has an excellent TER enhancement (∼1.1 × 10 6 ), which is about 66 folds of that achieved by regular AgNWs. Our experiments demonstrate that AgNWs with clean interfaces and the proper tip geometry can provide reliable and reproducible STM and TER characterizations, which remove the hurdles preventing the implementation of AgNW in STM-based near-field optical applications for a broad community.