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  1. null (Ed.)
    Species that went extinct prior to the genomic era are typically out-of-reach for modern phylogenetic studies. We refer to these as “Alexandrian” extinctions, after the lost library of the ancient world. This is particularly limiting for conservation studies, as genetic data for such taxa may be key to understand extinction threats and risks, the causes of declines, and inform management of related, extant populations. Fortunately, continual advances in biochemistry and DNA sequencing offer increasing ability to recover DNA from historical museum specimens, including fluid-preserved natural history collections. Here, we report on success in recovering nuclear and mitochondrial data from the apparently-extinct subspecies Desmognathus fuscus carri Neill, 1951, a plethodontid salamander from spring runs in central Florida. The two specimens are 50 years old and were likely preserved in unbuffered formalin, but application of a recently derived extraction procedure yielded usable DNA and partially successful Anchored Hybrid Enrichment sequencing. These data suggest that the populations of D. f. carri from peninsular Florida are conspecific with the D. auriculatus A lineage as suggested by previous authors, but likely represented an ecogeographically distinct genetic segment that has now been lost. Genetic data from this Alexandrian extinction thus confirm the geographic extent of population declines and extirpations as well as their ecological context, suggesting a possibly disproportionate loss from sandy-bottom clearwater streams compared to blackwater swamps. Success of these methods bodes well for large-scale application to fluid-preserved natural history specimens from relevant historical populations, but the possibility of significant DNA damage and related sequencing errors in additional hurdle to overcome. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Jacob Green was born in 1790 to a prominent New Jersey family of scholars and theologians. He taught at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) from 1818 to 1822 before co-founding Jefferson Medical College (now Thomas Jefferson University) in 1825, where he taught Chemistry until his death in 1841. Between 1818 and 1831, he published a series of nine papers on lizards, salamanders, and snakes, authoring the original description of several well-known species of salamanders from the eastern United States. Many of his names are ambiguous; some have been adjudicated by the ICZN, while others are currently treated as nomina dubia. Here, we review all of Green’s publications, report on newly re-discovered or re-interpreted material from several major natural history collections, and resolve most if not all remaining issues through a series of taxonomic actions. In particular, we first designate a neotype for Salamandra nigra Green, 1818. We then place S. sinciput-albida Green, 1818 and S. frontalis Gray in Cuvier, 1831 in synonymy with S. scutata Temminck in Temminck & Schlegel, 1838 and invoke Reversal of Precedence under Article 23.9 to designate them nomina oblita. We also designate a lectotype for S. bislineata Green, 1818. Finally, we resurrect the name S. fusca Green, 1818 as the valid name for the species Desmognathus fuscus, assuming priority over Triturus fuscus Rafinesque, 1820, designating S. fusca Laurenti, 1768 a nomen oblitum, and placing S. nigra Green, 1818 in synonymy. While Green’s herpetological legacy is not as expansive as that of some of his successors such as Holbrook, he is nonetheless a foundational early worker in salamanders, having described some of the most-studied species in the world. 
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