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    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is the most commonly used non-invasive tool in the assessment of cardiovascular diseases. Segmentation of the ECG signal to locate its constitutive waves, in particular the R-peaks, is a key step in ECG processing and analysis. Over the years, several segmentation and QRS complex detection algorithms have been proposed with different features; however, their performance highly depends on applying preprocessing steps which makes them unreliable in realtime data analysis of ambulatory care settings and remote monitoring systems, where the collected data is highly noisy. Moreover, some issues still remain with the current algorithms in regard to the diverse morphological categories for the ECG signal and their high computation cost. In this paper, we introduce a novel graph-based optimal changepoint detection (GCCD) method for reliable detection of Rpeak positions without employing any preprocessing step. The proposed model guarantees to compute the globally optimal changepoint detection solution. It is also generic in nature and can be applied to other time-series biomedical signals. Based on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia (MIT-BIH-AR) database, the proposed method achieves overall sensitivity Sen = 99.76, positive predictivity PPR = 99.68, and detection error rate DER = 0.55 which are comparable to other state-of-the-art approaches. 
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    Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is among one of the most common types of heart arrhythmia afflicting more than 3 million people in the U.S. alone. AF is estimated to be the cause of death of 1 in 4 individuals. Recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms have led to the capability of reliably detecting AF from ECG signals. While these algorithms can accurately detect AF with high precision, the discrete and deterministic classifications mean that these networks are likely to erroneously classify the given ECG signal. This paper proposes a variational autoencoder classifier network that provides an uncertainty estimation of the network's output in addition to reliable classification accuracy. This framework can increase physicians' trust in using AI-based AF detection algorithms by providing them with a confidence score which reflects how uncertain the algorithm is about a case and recommending them to put more attention to the cases with a lower confidence score. The uncertainty is estimated by conducting multiple passes of the input through the network to build a distribution; the mean of the standard deviations is reported as the network's uncertainty. Our proposed network obtains 97.64% accuracy in addition to reporting the uncertainty. 
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    This study presents a new viewpoint on ECG signal analysis by applying a graph-based changepoint detection model to locate R-peak positions. This model is based on a new graph learning algorithm to learn the constraint graph given the labeled ECG data. The proposed learning algorithm starts with a simple initial graph and iteratively edits the graph so that the final graph has the maximum accuracy in R-peak detection. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain comparable results to other state-of-the-art approaches. The proposed method achieves the overall sensitivity of Sen = 99.64%, positive predictivity of PPR = 99.71%, and detection error rate of DER = 0.19. 
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