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  1. Jan Vymazal (Ed.)
    Invasive species management typically aims to promote diversity and wildlife habitat, but little is known about how management techniques affect wetland carbon (C) dynamics. Since wetland C uptake is largely influenced by water levels and highly productive plants, the interplay of hydrologic extremes and invasive species is fundamental to understanding and managing these ecosystems. During a period of rapid water level rise in the Laurentian Great Lakes, we tested how mechanical treatment of invasive plant Typha × glauca shifts plant-mediated wetland C metrics. From 2015 to 2017, we implemented large-scale treatment plots (0.36-ha) of harvest (i.e., cut above water surface, removed biomass twice a season), crush (i.e., ran over biomass once mid-season with a tracked vehicle), and Typha-dominated controls. Treated Typha regrew with approximately half as much biomass as unmanipulated controls each year, and Typha production in control stands increased from 500 to 1500 g-dry mass m−2 yr−1 with rising water levels (~10 to 75 cm) across five years. Harvested stands had total in-situ methane (CH4) flux rates twice as high as in controls, and this increase was likely via transport through cut stems because crushing did not change total CH4 flux. In 2018, one year after final treatment implementation,more »crushed stands had greater surface water diffusive CH4 flux rates than controls (measured using dissolved gas in water), likely due to anaerobic decomposition of flattened biomass. Legacy effects of treatments were evident in 2019; floating Typha mats were present only in harvested and crushed stands, with higher frequency in deeper water and a positive correlation with surface water diffusive CH4 flux. Our study demonstrates that two mechanical treatments have differential effects on Typha structure and consequent wetland CH4 emissions, suggesting that C-based responses and multi-year monitoring in variable water conditions are necessary to accurately assess how management impacts ecological function.« less
  2. Globally, planted forests are rapidly replacing naturally regenerated stands but the implications for canopy structure, carbon (C) storage, and the linkages between the two are unclear. We investigated the successional dynamics, interlinkages and mechanistic relationships between wood net primary production (NPPw) and canopy structure in planted and naturally regenerated red pine (Pinus resinosa Sol. ex Aiton) stands spanning ≥ 45 years of development. We focused our canopy structural analysis on leaf area index (LAI) and a spatially integrative, terrestrial LiDAR-based complexity measure, canopy rugosity, which is positively correlated with NPPw in several naturally regenerated forests, but which has not been investigated in planted stands. We estimated stand NPPw using a dendrochronological approach and examined whether canopy rugosity relates to light absorption and light–use efficiency. We found that canopy rugosity increased similarly with age in planted and naturally regenerated stands, despite differences in other structural features including LAI and stem density. However, the relationship between canopy rugosity and NPPw was negative in planted and not significant in naturally regenerated stands, indicating structural complexity is not a globally positive driver of NPPw. Underlying the negative NPPw-canopy rugosity relationship in planted stands was a corresponding decline in light-use efficiency, which peaked in themore »youngest, densely stocked stand with high LAI and low structural complexity. Even with significant differences in the developmental trajectories of canopy structure, NPPw, and light use, planted and naturally regenerated stands stored similar amounts of C in wood over a 45-year period. We conclude that widespread increases in planted forests are likely to affect age-related patterns in canopy structure and NPPw, but planted and naturally regenerated forests may function as comparable long-term C sinks via different structural and mechanistic pathways.« less