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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Wang, L. ; Zhang, J.-M. ; Wang, R. (Ed.)
    Observations of the dynamic loading and liquefaction response of a deep medium dense sand deposit to controlled blasting have allowed quantification of its large-volume dynamic behavior from the linear-elastic to nonlinear-inelastic regimes under in-situ conditions unaffected by the influence of sample disturbance or imposed laboratory boundary conditions. The dynamic response of the sand was shown to be governed by the S-waves resulting from blast-induced ground motions, the frequencies of which lie within the range of earthquake ground motions. The experimentally derived dataset allowed ready interpretation of the in-situ γ-ue responses under the cyclic strain approach. However, practitioners have more commonly interpreted cyclic behavior using the cyclic stress-based approach; thus this paper also presents the methodology implemented to interpret the equivalent number of stress cycles, Neq, and deduce the cyclic stress ratios, CSRs, generated during blast-induced shearing to provide a comprehensive comparison of the cyclic resistance of the in-situ and constant-volume, stress- and strain-controlled cyclic direct simple shear (DSS) behavior of reconstituted sand specimens consolidated to the in-situ vertical effective stress, relative density, and Vs. The multi-directional cyclic resistance of the in-situ deposit was observed to be larger than that derived from the results of the cyclic strain and stress interpretations of the uniaxial DSS test data, indicating the substantial contributions of natural soil fabric and partial drainage to liquefaction resistance during shaking. The cyclic resistance ratios, CRRs, computed using case history-based liquefaction triggering procedures based on the SPT, CPT, and Vs are compared to that determined from in-situ CRR-Neq relationships considering justified, assumed slopes of the CRR-N curve, indicating variable degrees of accuracy relative to the in-situ CRR, all of which were smaller than that associated with the in-situ cyclic resistance. 
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  4. This paper presents the results from a study of the role of soil fabric on the cyclic response of silty soil samples retrieved from two different sites from a series of sites investigated as a part of a larger study: one along the Willamette River (Site B) and one along the Columbia River (Site D). The soils investigated in this study were retrieved from Site B and exhibited an average 𝑃𝐼=13, and from Site D which were characterized with an average 𝑃𝐼=28. The cyclic response of the soils was evaluated by performing several constant-volume, stress-controlled, cyclic direct simple shear tests (CDSS) with varying cyclic stress ratios, CSRs, on natural, intact specimens and their reconstituted counterparts. Despite the lower void ratios of the reconstituted specimens, the cyclic resistance of the intact specimens for Sites B and D at 15 loading cycles were 19% and 37% greater than their reconstituted counterparts, respectively. For the given loading conditions, the rate of excess pore pressure development, single amplitude shear strain (𝛾) accumulation, and shear stiffness degradation in reconstituted specimens were greater than the natural intact specimens, emphasizing the role of soil fabric, as confirmed by the lower shear wave velocity (𝑉𝑠) of reconstituted specimens compared to their intact counterparts. 
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  5. Current best practices for the assessment of the cyclic response of plastic silts are centered on the careful sampling and cyclic testing of natural, intact specimens. Side-by-side evaluation of in-situ and laboratory element test responses are severely limited, despite the need to establish similarities and differences in their characteristics. In this paper, a coordinated laboratory and field-testing campaign that was undertaken to compare the strain-controlled cyclic response of a plastic silt deposit at the Port of Longview, Longview, WA is described. Following a discussion of the subsurface conditions at one of several test panels, the responses of laboratory test specimens to resonant column and cyclic torsional shear testing, and constant-volume, strain-controlled cyclic direct simple shear testing are described in terms of shear modulus nonlinearity and degradation, and excess pore pressure generation with shear strain. Several months earlier, the in-situ cyclic response of the same deposit was investigated by applying a range of shear strain amplitudes using a large mobile shaker. The in-situ response is presented and compared to the laboratory test results, highlighting similarities and differences arising from differences in mechanical (e.g., constant-volume shearing; strain rate-effects) and hydraulic (e.g., local drainage) boundary conditions and the spatial variability of natural soil deposits. 
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  6. Lemnitzer, A. ; Stuedlein, A.W. (Ed.)
    This study presents a laboratory investigation of the monotonic, cyclic, and post-cyclic responses of a lightly overconsolidated, low plasticity silt deposit conducted to support the geotechnical design of a proposed bridge replacement crossing the Willamette River in Corvallis, OR. The design seismic hazard corresponded to the 975-year return period with the Cascadia Subduction Zone contributing the greatest portion of the hazard. The response of the intact, natural specimens was compared to that of specimens reconstituted from the same material for comparison of the effect of soil fabric. Constant-volume cyclic stress controlled direct simple shear tests (CDSS) conducted on the low plasticity silt deposit showed cyclic mobility type behavior and increases in cyclic resistance with OCR. The exponent of the power relationship between cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) and the number of cycles, N, was shown to be smaller than that commonly assumed within the simplified method for cyclic softening of fine-grained plastic soil. Despite higher density, the reconstituted specimens exhibited approximately 16% lower cyclic resistance than their undisturbed counterparts, indicating the importance of soil fabric on the cyclic resistance of natural silt soils. The post-cyclic volumetric strain of the silt deposit was found to be independent of OCR and increased with the maximum excess pore pressure ratio generated during the cyclic tests. 
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