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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. During the development of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) to neuronal committed cells (NCC), coordinated changes in the expression of 2851 genes take place, mediated by the nuclear form of FGFR1. In this paper, widespread differences are demonstrated in the ESC and NCC inter- and intra-chromosomal interactions, chromatin looping, the formation of CTCF- and nFGFR1-linked Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) on a genome-wide scale and in exemplary HoxA-D loci. The analysis centered on HoxA cluster shows that blocking FGFR1 disrupts the loop formation. FGFR1 binding and genome locales are predictive of the genome interactions; likewise, chromatin interactions along with nFGFR1 binding are predictive of the genome function and correlate with genome regulatory attributes and gene expression. This study advances a topologically integrated genome archipelago model that undergoes structural transformations through the formation of nFGFR1-associated TADs. The makeover of the TAD islands serves to recruit distinct ontogenic programs during the development of the ESC to NCC.
  3. Abstract Homeostatic control of neuronal excitability by modulation of synaptic inhibition (I) and excitation (E) of the principal neurons is important during brain maturation. The fundamental features of in-utero brain development, including local synaptic E–I ratio and bioenergetics, can be modeled by cerebral organoids (CO) that have exhibited highly regular nested oscillatory network events. Therefore, we evaluated a 'Phase Zero' clinical study platform combining broadband Vis/near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy and electrophysiology with studying E–I ratio based on the spectral exponent of local field potentials and bioenergetics based on the activity of mitochondrial Cytochrome-C Oxidase (CCO). We found a significant effect of the age of the healthy controls iPSC CO from 23 days to 3 months on the CCO activity (chi-square (2, N = 10) = 20, p = 4.5400e−05), and spectral exponent between 30–50 Hz (chi-square (2, N = 16) = 13.88, p = 0.001). Also, a significant effect of drugs, choline (CHO), idebenone (IDB), R-alpha-lipoic acid plus acetyl- l -carnitine (LCLA), was found on the CCO activity (chi-square (3, N = 10) = 25.44, p = 1.2492e−05), spectral exponent between 1 and 20 Hz (chi-square (3, N = 16) = 43.5, p = 1.9273e−09) and 30–50 Hz (chi-square (3, N = 16) = 23.47, p = 3.2148e−05) in 34 days old CO from schizophrenia (SCZ) patients iPSC. We present the feasibility of a multimodal approach, combining electrophysiology and broadband Vis–NIR spectroscopy, to monitor neurodevelopment in brain organoidmore »models that can complement traditional drug design approaches to test clinically meaningful hypotheses.« less
  4. By interconnecting nanomachines and forming nanonetworks, the capacities of singlenanomachines are expected to be enhanced, as the ensuing information exchange will allow themto cooperate towards a common goal. Nowadays, systems normally use electromagnetic signals toencode, send and receive information, however, in a novel communication paradigm, moleculartransceivers, channel models or protocols use molecules. This article presents the current developmentsin nanomachines along with their future architecture to better understand nanonetworkscenarios in biomedical applications. Furthermore, to highlight the communication needs betweennanomachines, two applications for nanonetworks are also presented: i) a new networking paradigm,called the Internet of NanoThings, that allows nanoscale devices to interconnect with existingcommunication networks, and ii) Molecular Communication, where the propagation of chemicalcompounds like drug particles, carry out the information exchange.