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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  3. Bismuth oxide is an important bismuth compound having applications in electronics, photo-catalysis and medicine. At the nanoscale, bismuth oxide experiences a variety of new physico-chemical properties because of its increased surface to volume ratio leading to potentially new applications. In this manuscript, we report for the very first time the synthesis of bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ) nano-flakes by pulsed laser ablation in liquids without any external assistance (no acoustic, electric field, or magnetic field). The synthesis was performed by irradiating, pure bismuth needles immerged in de-ionized water, at very high fluence ∼160 J cm −2 in ordermore »to be highly selective and only promote the growth of two-dimensional structures. The x - and y -dimensions of the flakes were around 1 μm in size while their thickness was 47.0 ± 12.7 nm as confirmed by AFM analysis. The flakes were confirmed to be α- and γ-Bi 2 O 3 by SAED and Raman spectroscopy. By using this mixture of flakes, we demonstrated that the nanostructures can be used as antimicrobial agents, achieving a complete inhibition of Gram positive (MSRA) and Gram negative bacteria (MDR-EC) at low concentration, ∼50 ppm.« less
  4. Abstract We report a combined experimental and computational study of the optical properties of individual silicon telluride (Si 2 Te 3 ) nanoplates. The p-type semiconductor Si 2 Te 3 has a unique layered crystal structure with hexagonal closed-packed Te sublattices and Si–Si dimers occupying octahedral intercalation sites. The orientation of the silicon dimers leads to unique optical and electronic properties. Two-dimensional Si 2 Te 3 nanoplates with thicknesses of hundreds of nanometers and lateral sizes of tens of micrometers are synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition technique. At temperatures below 150 K, the Si 2 Te 3 nanoplates exhibit amore »direct band structure with a band gap energy of 2.394 eV at 7 K and an estimated free exciton binding energy of 150 meV. Polarized reflection measurements at different temperatures show anisotropy in the absorption coefficient due to an anisotropic orientation of the silicon dimers, which is in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations of the dielectric functions. Polarized Raman measurements of single Si 2 Te 3 nanoplates at different temperatures reveal various vibrational modes, which agree with density functional perturbation theory calculations. The unique structural and optical properties of nanostructured Si 2 Te 3 hold great potential applications in optoelectronics and chemical sensing.« less
  5. Confining and controlling light in extreme subwavelength scales are tantalizing tasks. In this work, we report a study of individual plasmonic film-coupled nanostar resonators where polarized plasmonic optical modes are trapped in ultrasmall volumes. Individual gold nanostars, separated from a flat gold film by a thin dielectric spacer layer, exhibit a strong light confinement between the sub-10 nm volume of the nanostar's tips and the film. Through dark field scattering measurements of many individual nanostars, a statistical observation of the scattered spectra is obtained and compared with extensive simulation data to reveal the origins of the resonant peaks. We observemore »that an individual nanostar on a flat gold film can result in a resonant spectrum with single, double or multiple peaks. Further, these resonant peaks are strongly polarized under white light illumination. Our simulation data revealed that the resonant spectrum of an individual film-coupled nanostar resonator is related to the symmetry of the nanostar, as well as the orientation of the nanostar relative to its placement on the gold substrate. Our results demonstrate a simple new method to create an ultrasmall mode volume and polarization sensitive plasmonic platform which could be useful for applications in sensing or enhanced light–matter interactions.« less
  6. The resonance energy transfer and entanglement between two-level quantum emitters are typically limited to sub-wavelength distances due to the inherently short-range nature of the dipole–dipole interactions. Moreover, the entanglement of quantum systems is hard to preserve for a long time period due to decoherence and dephasing mainly caused by radiative and nonradiative losses. In this work, we outperform the aforementioned limitations by presenting efficient long-range inter-emitter entanglement and large enhancement of resonance energy transfer between two optical qubits mediated by epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and other plasmonic waveguide types, such as V-shaped grooves and cylindrical nanorods. More importantly, we explicitly demonstrate thatmore »the ENZ waveguide resonant energy transfer and entanglement performance drastically outperforms the other waveguide systems. Only the excited ENZ mode has an infinite phase velocity combined with a strong and homogeneous electric field distribution, which leads to a giant energy transfer and efficient entanglement independent of the emitters’ separation distances and nanoscale positions in the ENZ nanowaveguide, an advantageous feature that can potentially accommodate multi-qubit entanglement. Moreover, the transient entanglement can be further improved and become almost independent of the detrimental decoherence effect when an optically active (gain) medium is embedded inside the ENZ waveguide. We also present that efficient steady-state entanglement can be achieved by using a coherent external pumping scheme. Finally, we report a practical way to detect the steady-state entanglement by computing the second-order correlation function. The presented findings stress the importance of plasmonic ENZ waveguides in the design of the envisioned on-chip quantum communication and information processing plasmonic nanodevices.« less