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  1. The gas-phase structures of protonated unsymmetrical 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and the proton-bound dimers of UDMH and hydrazine are examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and an optical parametric oscillator laser system. To identify the structures present in the experimental studies, the measured IRMPD spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP-GD3BJ/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. These comparisons show that protonated UDMH binds the proton at the methylated nitrogen atom (α) with two low-lying α conformers probably being populated. For (UDMH) 2 H + , the proton is shared between the methylated nitrogen atoms with several low-lying α conformers likely to be populated. Higher-lying conformers of (UDMH) 2 H + in which the proton is shared between α and β (unmethylated) nitrogen atoms cannot be ruled out on the basis of the IRPMD spectrum. For (N 2 H 4 ) 2 H + , there are four low-lying conformers that all reproduce the IRMPD spectrum reasonably well. As hydrazine and UDMH see usage as fuels for rocket engines, such spectra are potentially useful as a means of remotely monitoring rocket launches, especially in cases of unsuccessful launches where environmental hazards need to be assessed. 
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  2. Cisplatin, (NH 3 ) 2 PtCl 2 , has been known as a successful metal-based anticancer drug for more than half a century. Its analogue, Argplatin, arginine-linked cisplatin, (Arg)PtCl 2 , is being investigated because it exhibits reactivity towards DNA and RNA that differs from that of cisplatin. In order to understand the basis for its altered reactivity, the deprotonated and sodium cationized forms of Argplatin, [(Arg-H)PtCl 2 ] − and [(Arg)PtCl 2 + Na] + , are examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy in the IR fingerprint and hydrogen-stretching regions. Complementary electronic structure calculations are performed using density functional theory approaches to characterize the stable structures of these complexes and to predict their infrared spectra. Comparison of the theoretical IR spectra predicted for various stable conformations of these Argplatin complexes to their measured IRMPD spectra enables determination of the binding mode(s) of Arg to the Pt metal center to be identified. Arginine is found to bind to Pt in a bidentate fashion to the backbone amino nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen atoms in both the [(Arg-H)PtCl 2 ] − and [(Arg)PtCl 2 + Na] + complexes, the NO − binding mode. The neutral side chain of Arg also interacts with the Pt center to achieve additional stabilization in the [(Arg-H)PtCl 2 ] − complex. In contrast, Na + binds to both chlorido ligands in the [(Arg)PtCl 2 + Na] + complex and the protonated side chain of Arg is stabilized via hydrogen-bonding interactions with the carboxylate moiety. These findings are consistent with condensed-phase results, indicating that the NO − binding mode of arginine to Pt is preserved in the electrospray ionization process even under variable pH and ionic strength. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Imidazolium-based cations and the hexafluorophosphate anion are among the most commonly used ionic liquids (ILs). Yet, the nature and strength of the intrinsic cation–anion interactions, and how they influence the macroscopic properties of these ILs are still not well understood. Threshold collision-induced dissociation is utilized to determine the bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the 2 : 1 clusters of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations and the hexafluorophosphate anion, [2C n mim:PF 6 ] + . The cation, [C n mim] + , is varied across the series, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium [C 2 mim] + , 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [C 4 mim] + , 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium [C 6 mim] + , 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium [C 8 mim] + , to examine the structural and energetic effects of the size of the 1-alkyl substituent of the cation on the binding to [PF 6 ] − . Complementary electronic structure methods are employed for the [C n mim] + cations, (C n mim:PF 6 ) ion pairs, and [2C n mim:PF 6 ] + clusters to elucidate details of the cation–anion interactions and their impact on structure and energetics. Multiple levels of theory are benchmarked with the measured BDEs including B3LYP, B3LYP-GD3BJ, and M06-2X each with the 6-311+G(d,p) basis set for geometry optimizations and frequency analyses and the 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis set for energetic determinations. The modest structural variation among the [C n mim] + cations produces only minor structural changes and variation in the measured BDEs of the [2C n mim:PF 6 ] + clusters. Present results are compared to those previously reported for the analogous 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate IL clusters to compare the effects of these anions on the nature and strength of the intrinsic binding interactions. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique properties that have led to their development and widespread use for a variety of applications. Development efforts have generally focused on achieving desired macroscopic properties via tuning of the IL through variation of the cations and anions. Both the macroscopic and microscopic properties of an IL influence its tunability and thus feasibility of use for selected applications. Works geared toward a microscopic understanding of the nature and strength of the intrinsic cation-anion interactions of ILs have been limited to date. Specifically, the intrinsic strength of the cation-anion interactions in ILs is largely unknown. In previous work, we employed threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) approaches supported and enhanced by electronic structure calculations to determine the bond dissociation energies (BDEs) and characterize the nature of the cation-anion interactions in a series of four 2:1 clusters of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations with the hexafluorophosphate anion, [2C n mim:PF 6 ] + . To examine the effects of the 1-alkyl chain on the structure and energetics of binding, the cation was varied over the series: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C 2 mim] + , 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C 4 mim] + , 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C 6 mim] + , and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C 8 mim] + . The variation in the strength of binding among these [2C n mim:PF 6 ] + clusters was found to be similar in magnitude to the average experimental uncertainty in the measurements. To definitively establish an absolute order of binding among these [2C n mim:PF 6 ] + clusters, we extend this work again using TCID and electronic structure theory approaches to include competitive binding studies of three mixed 2:1 clusters of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations and the hexafluorophosphate anion, [C n-2 mim:PF 6 :C n mim] + for n = 4, 6, and 8. The absolute BDEs of these mixed [C n-2 mim:PF 6 :C n mim] + clusters as well as the absolute difference in the strength of the intrinsic binding interactions as a function of the cation are determined with significantly improved precision. By combining the thermochemical results of the previous independent and present competitive measurements, the BDEs of the [2C n mim:PF 6 ] + clusters are both more accurately and more precisely determined. Comparisons are made to results for the analogous [2C n mim:BF 4 ] + and [C n-2 mim:PF 6 :C n mim] + clusters previously examined to elucidate the effects of the [PF 6 ] - and [BF 4 ] - anions on the binding. 
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